Bidirectional DC-DC Power Converter Design Optimization, Modeling and Control

TR Number
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Virginia Tech

In order to increase the power density, the discontinuous conducting mode (DCM) and small inductance is adopted for high power bidirectional dc-dc converter. The DCM related current ripple is minimized with multiphase interleaved operation. The turn-off loss caused by the DCM induced high peak current is reduced by snubber capacitor. The energy stored in the capacitor needs to be discharged before device is turned on. A complementary gating signal control scheme is employed to turn on the non-active switch helping discharge the capacitor and diverting the current into the anti-paralleled diode of the active switch. This realizes the zero voltage resonant transition (ZVRT) of main switches. This scheme also eliminates the parasitic ringing in inductor current.

This work proposes an inductance and snubber capacitor optimization methodology. The inductor volume index and the inductor valley current are suggested as the optimization method for small volume and the realization of ZVRT. The proposed capacitance optimization method is based on a series of experiments for minimum overall switching loss. According to the suggested design optimization, a high power density hardware prototype is constructed and tested. The experimental results are provided, and the proposed design approach is verified.

In this dissertation, a general-purposed power stage model is proposed based on complementary gating signal control scheme and derived with space-state averaging method. The model features a third-order system, from which a second-order model with resistive load on one side can be derived and a first-order model with a voltage source on both sides can be derived. This model sets up a basis for the unified controller design and optimization. The Δ-type model of coupled inductor is introduced and simplified to provide a more clearly physical meaning for design and dynamic analysis. These models have been validated by the Simplis ac analysis simulation.

For power flow control, a unified controller concept is proposed based on the derived general-purposed power stage model. The proposed unified controller enables smooth bidirectional current flow. Controller is implemented with digital signal processing (DSP) for experimental verification. The inductor current is selected as feedback signal in resistive load, and the output current is selected as feedback signal in battery load.

Load step and power flow step control tests are conducted for resistive load and battery load separately. The results indicate that the selected sensing signal can produce an accurate and fast enough feedback signal. Experimental results show that the transition between charging and discharging is very smooth, and there is no overshoot or undershoot transient. It presents a seamless transition for bidirectional current flow. The smooth transition should be attributed to the use of the complementary gating signal control scheme and the proposed unified controller. System simulations are made, and the results are provided. The test results have a good agreement with system simulation results, and the unified controller performs as expected.

unified controller, digital controller, bidirectional dc-dc converter, high power density, complementary gating control operation, averaged model, general-purposed power stage modeling, modeling and control