The resolution by elementary principals of incongruencies in teacher and assistant superintendent expectations for leader behavior as inferred from self and teacher perceptions of actual leader behavior: a case study
The purpose of the study was to investigate sent-role conflicts in expected leader behavior of elementary principals and whether the Real leader behavior of those principals more closely approximated that behavior expected by teachers or their immediate superior, an assistant superintendent. Three research questions guided the investigation: (1) Do teachers and an assistant superintendent have different expectations for the leader behavior of principals? (2) Does the actual leader behavior of principals, as perceived by principals, more closely approximate the behavior expected by the assistant superintendent or the behavior expected by teachers? (3) Does the actual leader behavior of principals, as perceived by teachers, more closely approximate the behavior expected by the assistant superintendent or the behavior expected by teachers?
The data were gathered by means of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire Form XII. The questionnaire was administered to 26 elementary principals to obtain perceptions of their Real leader behaviors, to 260 elementary teachers to ascertain perceptions of their principal's Real and Ideal leader behavior, and to the assistant superintendent to determine his perception of the Ideal leader behavior of principals.
Means, standard deviations, and standard error of the means were calculated for the teachers' perceptions of the Real and Ideal leader behavior of principals on each of the LBDQ dimensions. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated for the teachers perceptions (Real-Ideal) for the purpose of identifying schools having leadership role conflicts and to determine the apparent resolution.
The analysis of the combined data indicated that principals' Real leader behavior was congruent with teacher expectations in 35% of the cases, with the assistant superintendent's expectations in 25% of the cases, with both the teachers' and assistant superintendent's expectations in 17.5% of the cases, and with neither the teachers' nor assistant superintendent's expectations in 22.5% of the cases.