Clinical Theranostics in Recurrent Gliomas: A Review

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Gliomas represent the most commonly occurring tumors in the central nervous system and account for approximately 80% of all malignant primary brain tumors. With a high malignancy and recurrence risk, the prognosis of high-grade gliomas is poor, with a mean survival time of 12–18 months. While contrast-enhanced MRI serves as the standard diagnostic imaging modality for gliomas, it faces limitations in the evaluation of recurrent gliomas, failing to distinguish between treatment-related changes and tumor progression, and offers no direct therapeutic options. Recent advances in imaging modalities have attempted to address some of these limitations, including positron emission tomography (PET), which has demonstrated success in delineating tumor margins and guiding the treatment of recurrent gliomas. Additionally, with the advent of theranostics in nuclear medicine, PET tracers, when combined with therapeutic agents, have also evolved beyond a purely diagnostic modality, serving both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. This review will discuss the growing involvement of theranostics in diagnosing and treating recurrent gliomas and address the associated impact on quality of life and functional recovery.




Hoggarth, A.R.; Muthukumar, S.; Thomas, S.M.; Crowley, J.; Kiser, J.; Witcher, M.R. Clinical Theranostics in Recurrent Gliomas: A Review. Cancers 2024, 16, 1715.