Unsupervised Multitaper Spectral Method for Identifying REM Sleep in Intracranial EEG Recordings Lacking EOG/EMG Data

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2023-08-25
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MDPI
Abstract

A large number of human intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings have been collected for clinical purposes, in institutions all over the world, but the vast majority of these are unaccompanied by EOG and EMG recordings which are required to separate Wake episodes from REM sleep using accepted methods. In order to make full use of this extremely valuable data, an accurate method of classifying sleep from iEEG recordings alone is required. Existing methods of sleep scoring using only iEEG recordings accurately classify all stages of sleep, with the exception that wake (W) and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep are not well distinguished. A novel multitaper (Wake vs. REM) alpha-rhythm classifier is developed by generalizing K-means clustering for use with multitaper spectral eigencoefficients. The performance of this unsupervised method is assessed on eight subjects exhibiting normal sleep architecture in a hold-out analysis and is compared against a classical power detector. The proposed multitaper classifier correctly identifies 36±6 min of REM in one night of recorded sleep, while incorrectly labeling less than 10% of all labeled 30 s epochs for all but one subject (human rater reliability is estimated to be near 80%), and outperforms the equivalent statistical-power classical test. Hold-out analysis indicates that when using one night’s worth of data, an accurate generalization of the method on new data is likely. For the purpose of studying sleep, the introduced multitaper alpha-rhythm classifier further paves the way to making available a large quantity of otherwise unusable IEEG data.

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Citation
Lepage, K.Q.; Jain, S.; Kvavilashvili, A.; Witcher, M.; Vijayan, S. Unsupervised Multitaper Spectral Method for Identifying REM Sleep in Intracranial EEG Recordings Lacking EOG/EMG Data. Bioengineering 2023, 10, 1009.