A national study using the Delphi technique to identify teacher competencies for evaluating industrial arts student teachers
The purpose of this study was to identify and gain consensus on triadic listings of teacher competencies for evaluating industrial arts student teachers--based on the converged opinions of three groups of industrial arts educators.
Starting with an initial set of teacher competencies three modified Delphi exercises were conducted simultaneously with each of three groups of industrial arts educators: (1) industrial arts classroom teachers, (2) industrial arts teacher educators, and (3) industrial arts supervisors. To encourage convergence of opinions, modified Delphi exercises allowed each group to rate competencies during three rounds of iteration.
Twenty-seven classroom teachers, twenty-seven teacher educators, and twenty-four supervisors rated 72 competencies during each round of the study. The total group of educators was representative of the seven geographic regions of the American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA).
The results of the study indicated that convergence of opinions occurred for each group of educators during the second and third rounds of the study. Based on the converged opinions of each group, triadic listings of teacher competencies were developed. The three listings of teacher competencies were rank ordered according to mean value of importance. The results also indicated a high rate of agreement between each group on the ranking of teacher competencies and that the rankings were reliable.
Major conclusions of the study were as follows:
There was a significant amount of disagreement within the groups and between the groups on the importance of the following teacher competencies: (a) use club related activities to promote learning, (b) check attendance for each class daily, (c) write course objectives in behavioral terms, (d) demonstrate correct usage of the lecture technique, (e) participate in extracurricular activities of the school, (f) prepare bulletin boards and/or displays, and (g) record student achievement by use of progress charts.
Each group of educators rated more than 90 percent of the teacher competencies as being, “of extremely high importance," "of high importance," and "of medium importance" in evaluating industrial arts student teachers.
Each group of educators placed the highest emphasis on teacher competencies listed under the categories of Personal qualities, and teaching methods and techniques. The next highest emphasis was placed on competencies listed under the categories of Laboratory/classroom management and technical knowledge and Manipulative skill. Less emphasis was placed on competencies under the categories of Student evaluation and Organization of instructional materials.
Major recommendations were:
Industrial arts educators should consider the teacher competencies identified in this study when designing evaluation instruments for industrial arts student teachers. Evaluation instruments designed around these competencies should place more emphasis on competencies related to personal qualities, teaching methods and techniques, laboratory/classroom management, and technical knowledge and manipulative skill.
Since the competencies identified in this study were stated as general objectives, it is recommended that the competencies be operationalized and stated in behavioral terms before being used as evaluative criteria.
Since increasing emphasis is being placed on competency-based teacher education, serious consideration should be given to developing such programs in industrial arts education. The competencies identified in this study can provide a basis for such development in industrial arts education.
The teacher competencies identified in this study should assist in the evaluation process. Therefore, teacher educators should not base student teacher evaluation on the development of competency alone. Evaluation should also be based upon the student teacher's potential and his/her own self assessment of success or failure in guiding learning experiences.