A Coordinated Voltage Management Method Utilizing Battery Energy Storage Systems and Smart PV Inverters in Distribution Networks with High PV and Wind Penetrations

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Virginia Tech

Electrical distribution networks face many operational challenges as various renewable distributed generation (DG), such as solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind, become part of their structure. Unlike conventional distribution systems, where the only unpredictable aspect is the load level, the intermittent nature of DG poses additional uncertainty levels for distribution system operators (DSO). The voltage quality problem considers the most restrictive issue that hinders high DG integration into distribution grids. Voltage deviates from the nominal grid voltage limits due to the excess power from the DG. DSOs are accustomed to improving the voltage profile by optimal adjustments of the on-load tap changers, voltage regulator taps and capacitor banks. Nevertheless, due to the frequent variability of the output energy from DG, these devices may fail in doing the needful. Battery energy storage systems (BESS) and smart PV inverter functionalities are regarded as promising solutions to promote the seamless integration of renewable resources into distribution networks. BESS are utilized to store the surplus energy during the high penetration of renewable DG that causes high voltage levels and discharge the stored energy when the distribution grid is heavily loaded, which leads to the low voltage levels. Smart PV inverters regulate the network voltage by controlling the reactive power injection or absorption at the inverter end. This dissertation proposes a management strategy that coordinates BESS and smart PV inverter reactive power capability to improve voltage quality in the distribution systems with high PV and wind penetrations. The proposed management method is based on a bi-level optimization algorithm consisting of upper and lower optimization levels. The proposed method determines the optimal location, capacity, numbers and BESS charging and discharging rates to support the distribution system voltage and to ensure optimal deployment of BESS. Case studies are conducted to evaluate the proposed voltage control method. The large size PV system and wind turbine impacts are studied and simulated on the modified IEEE-34 bus test feeder. In addition, the proposed method is applied to the modified IEEE low voltage test feeder to investigate the effectiveness of installing residential rooftop PV systems on the distribution system's voltage. Experimental results show promising outcomes of the proposed method in controlling the distribution networks' voltage. In addition, a day-ahead forecast of PV power output is developed in this dissertation to assist the DSOs to accurately predict the future amounts of PV energy available and reinforcing the decision-making process of batteries operation. Hybrid forecasting models are proposed based on machine learning algorithms, which utilize support vector regression and backpropagation neural network, optimized with three metaheuristic optimization algorithms, namely Social Spider Optimization (SSO), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Cuckoo Search Optimization (CSO). These algorithms are used to improve the predictive efficacy of the selected algorithms, where the optimal selection of their hyperparameters and architectures plays a significant role in yielding precise forecasting outcomes.

Renewable Distributed Generations, Battery Energy Storage, Smart PV Inverters, Voltage Control, Bi-level Optimization, Solar PV Forecasting