Countermeasures to Reduce Truck-Mounted Attenuator (TMA) Crashes: A State-of-the-Art Review


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To support worker and driver safety, this study conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify methods of enhancing TMA visibility, improving work zone configurations, and ensuring worker safety. To increase TMA recognition, this study observed that the use of a 6-to-8-inch wide yellow and black inverted ‘V’ pattern of retroreflective chevron markings, sloped at a 45-degree angle downward in both directions from the upper center of a rear panel is effective in alerting drivers to work zones. This study also recommends applying amber and white warning LEDs, which flash in an asynchronous pattern at a 1 Hz frequency and are mounted against a solid-colored background for a 360-degree view visible at least 1500 feet from the work zone. In addition, a work zone vehicle configuration consisting of a lead, buffer, and advance warning truck with a buffer space between 100 and 150 ft is suggested to reduce the risk of lateral intrusions and TMA roll-ahead. In parallel, workers should wear high-visibility vests noticeable at a minimum distance of 1000 feet and headwear with at least 10 square inches of retroreflective material. Some intelligent transport systems are also suggested to enhance TMA recognition and potentially minimize work zone fatalities. Application of the recommended guidelines will potentially improve current practices and significantly reduce the occurrence of TMA crashes in construction and maintenance work zones.




Mosunmola Aroke, O.; Sylvester Onuchukwu, I.; Esmaeili, B.; Flintsch, A.M. Countermeasures to Reduce Truck-Mounted Attenuator (TMA) Crashes: A State-of-the-Art Review. Future Transp. 2022, 2, 425-452.