Advanced Projection Ultrasound Imaging with CMOS-based Sensor Array: Development, Characterization, and Potential Medical Applications

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


Since early 1960s, ultrasound has become one of the most widely used medical imaging device as a diagnostic tool or an image guider for surgical intervention because of its high portability, non-ionization, non-invasiveness and low cost. Although continuous improvements in commercial equipments have been underway for many years, almost all systems are developed with pulse-echo geometry. In this research, a newly invented ultrasound sensor array was incorporated into the developments of a projection imaging system. Three C-scan prototypes, which included prototypes #1, #2 and an ultrasound mammography system, were constructed. Systematic and Evaluative studies included ultrasound CT, 3-D ultrasound, and multi-modality investigations were also performed. Furthermore, a new analytical method to model ultrasound forward scattering distribution (FSD) was developed by employing a specific annular apparatus. After applying this method, the scattering-corrected C-scan images revealed more detail structures as compared to unprocessed images. This new analytical modelling approach is believed to be effective for most imaging systems operating in projection geometry.

In summary, while awaiting additional clinical validation, the C-scan ultrasound prototypes with the state-of-the-art PE-CMOS sensor arrays can provide veritable value and holds real and imminent promise in medical diagnostic imaging. Potential future uses of C-scan ultrasound include but not limit to computerized tomography, biopsy guidance, therapeutic device placing, foreign object detection, pediatric imaging, breast imaging, prostate imaging, human extremities imaging and live animal imaging. With continuous research and development, we believe that C-scan ultrasound has the potential to make a significant impact in the field of medical ultrasound imaging.



Forward Ultrasound Scatter Modeling, Ultrasound Computed Tomography, Projection Ultrasound Imaging, PE-CMOS Sensor Array