Near Wall Behavior of Vortical Flow around the Tip of an Axial Pump Rotor Blade
This dissertation presents the results from an experimental study of three-dimensional turbulent tip gap flow in a linear cascade wind tunnel with 3.3% chord tip clearance with and without moving endwall simulation. Experimental measurements have been completed in Virginia Tech low speed linear cascade wind tunnel. A 24" access laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed to make simultaneous three-velocity-component measurements. The overall size of the probe is 24"Ã 37"Ã 24"and measurement spatial resolution is about 100 Î¼m. With 24" optical access distance, the LDV probe allows measurements to be taken from the side of the linear cascade tunnel instead of through the bottom of the tunnel floor. The probe has been tested in a zero-pressure gradient two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer.
Experimental measurements (oil flow visualization, pressure measurement, and LDV measurement) for the stationary wall captured the major flow structures of the tip leakage flow in the linear compressor cascade, such as tip leakage vortex, tip leakage vortex separation and tip separation vortex. Large velocity gradients in the tip leakage vortex separation, tip leakage vortex, and tip separation vortex regions generate large production of the Reynolds stresses and turbulent kinetic energy. One of the most interesting features of the tip leakage flow is the bimodal velocity probability histograms of the v component due to the unsteady motion of the flow in the interaction region between the tip leakage vortex and tip leakage jet. The tip separation vortex, tip leakage vortex separation, and tip leakage vortex contain most of turbulent kinetic energy and generate the highest dissipation rate.
Relative motion of the endwall significantly affects the tip gap flow structures, especially in the near wall region. Compared to the stationary wall case, velocity gradients in the near wall region for the moving wall case are much smaller and lower velocity gradients in the near wall region cause the low production of Reynolds stresses and turbulent kinetic energy. Similar to the stationary wall case, high Reynolds stresses and turbulent kinetic energy values are mainly located in the vicinity of the tip leakage vortex and tip separation vortex region. The bimodal velocity probability histograms of the v component are also found at the same locations. The tip separation vortex with most of the turbulent kinetic energy generates the highest dissipation rate. The dissipation rate in the tip leakage vortex region is reduced with the decrease of turbulent kinetic energy under the moving wall effect.