Guy1, a Y-linked embryonic signal, regulates dosage compensation in Anopheles stephensi by increasing X gene expression


We previously showed that Guy1, a primary signal expressed from the Y chromosome, is a strong candidate for a male-determining factor that confers female-specific lethality in Anopheles stephensi (Criscione et al., 2016). Here, we present evidence that Guyl increases X gene expression in Guy1-transgenic females from two independent lines, providing a mechanism underlying the Guy1-conferred female lethality. The median level gene expression (MGE) of X-linked genes is significantly higher than autosomal genes in Guy1-transgenic females while there is no significant difference in MGE between X and autosomal genes in wild-type females. Furthermore, Guyl significantly upregulates at least 40% of the 996 genes across the X chromosome in transgenic females. Guy1-conferred female-specific lethality is remarkably stable and completely penetrant. These findings indicate that Guyl regulates dosage compensation in An. stephensi and components of dosage compensation may be explored to develop novel strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases.



sex, chromosome, evolution, encodes, protein