Genetics of reactions to soybean mosaic virus in soybean

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Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University


The genetic interactions among 9 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars and 6 strains of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) were investigated. The objectives were to identify genes and/or alleles conditioning resistant and necrotic reactions to SMV and to determine the genetic relationships among resistance genes from cultivars exhibiting differential responses to the SMV strains.

Seven SMV-resistant (R) cultivars (‘PI 486355’, ‘Suweon 97’, ‘PI 96983’, ‘Ogden’, ‘York’, ‘Marshall’, and ‘Kwanggyo’) were crossed in all combinations among each other and with susceptible (S) cultivars ‘Essex’ and ‘Lee 68’. F₂ populations and F₂-derived F₃ lines were inoculated in field with the SMV type strain Gl and in the greenhouse with the virulent strains G4, G5, G6, G7, and G7A.

All F₂ populations from R x S and necrotic (N) x S crosses having PI 96983, Ogden, York, Marshall, and Kwanggyo as either resistant or necrotic parents segregated 3R:1S and 3N:1S, respectively. F₂-derived F₃ progenies from R x S crosses exhibited an F₂ genotypic ratio of 1 homogeneous R : 2 segregating (3R:1S) : l homogeneous S. The results indicate that each of these five resistant parents has a single, dominant or partially dominant gene conditioning the resistant and necrotic reactions to SMV. No segregation for SMV reaction was evident in F₂ and F₃ generations from R x R, N x N, and S x S crosses among the five differential cultivars, indicating that the resistance genes in the five cultivars are alleles at a common locus. The alleles in PI 96983 and Ogden were previously labeled Rsy and rsyt, respectively. Gene symbols, Rsyy, Rsym, and Rsyk are proposed for the resistance genes in York, Marshall, and Kwanggyo, respectively. It is also proposed that the gene symbol rsyt be changed to Rsyt to more accurately reflect its genetic relationship to the susceptible allele.

The R x S crosses with PI 486355 and Suweon 97 as resistant parents segregated 15R:1S in the F₂ and 7 (all R) : 4 (3R:1S) : 4 (15R:1S) : 1 (all S) in the F₃, indicating that each has two independent genes for resistance to SMV. The F₂ plants of PI 486355 x Suweon 97 showed no segregation for SMV reaction, suggesting that they have at least one gene in common. The crosses among all 7 resistant parents produced no susceptible segregates when inoculated with strain G1. It is concluded that the 7 resistant cultivars each have a gene or allele at the Rsy locus.

Data from the experiments furnished conclusive evidence that the necrotic reaction in segregating populations is highly associated with plants that are heterozygous for the resistance gene.