Investigation of the Processing History during Additive Friction Stir Deposition using In-process Monitoring Techniques

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Tech


Additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) is an emerging solid-state metal additive manufacturing technology that uses deformation bonding to create near-net shape 3D components. As a developing technology, a deeper understanding of the processing science is necessary to establish the process-structure relationships and enable improved control of the as-printed microstructure and material properties. AFSD provides a unique opportunity to explore the friction stir fundamentals via direct observation of the material during processing. This work explores the relationship between the processing parameters (e.g., tool rotation rate Ω, tool velocity V, and material feed rate F) and the thermomechanical history of the material by process monitoring of i) the temperature evolution, ii) the force evolution, and iii) the interfacial contact state between the tool and deposited material. Empirical trends are established for the peak temperature with respect to the processing conditions for Cu and Al-Mg-Si, but a key difference is noted in the form of the power law relationship: Ω/V for Cu and Ω2/V for Al-Mg-Si. Similarly, the normal force Fz for both materials correlates to V and inversely with Ω. For Cu both parameters show comparable influence on the normal force, whereas Ω is more impactful than V for Al-Mg-Si. On the other hand, the torque Mz trends for Al-Mg-Si are consistent with the normal force trends, however for Cu there is no direct correlation between the processing parameters and the torque. These distinct relationships and thermomechanical histories are directly linked to the contact states observed during deformation monitoring of the two material systems. In Cu, the interfacial contact between the material and tool head is characterized by a full slipping condition (δ=1). In this case, interfacial friction is the dominant heat generation mechanism and compression is the primary deformation mechanism. In Al-Mg-Si, the interfacial contact is characterized by a partial slipping/sticking condition (0<δ<1), so both interfacial friction and plastic energy dissipation are important mechanisms for heat generation and material deformation. Finally, an investigation into the contact evolution at different processing parameters shows that the fraction of sticking is critically dependent on the processing parameters which has many implications on the thermomechanical processing history.



metal additive manufacturing, friction stir process, in situ monitoring, thermomechanical processing