Multi-Agent Based Stochastic Dynamical Model to Measure Community Resilience

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Emergency services and utilities need appropriate planning tools to analyze and improve infrastructure and community resilience to disasters. Recognized as a key metric of community resilience is the social well-being of a community during a disaster, which is made up of mental and physical social health. Other factors influencing community resilience directly or indirectly are emotional health, emergency services, and the availability of critical infrastructures services, such as food, agriculture, water, transportation, electric power, and communications system. It turns out that in computational social science literature dealing with community resilience, the role of these critical infrastructures along with some important social characteristics is not considered. To address these weaknesses, we develop a new multi-agent based stochastic dynamical model, standardized by overview, design concepts, details, and decision (ODD+D) protocol and derived from neuro-science, psychological and social sciences, to measure community resilience in terms of mental and physical well-being. Using this model, we analyze the micro-macro level dependence between the emergency services and power systems and social characteristics such as fear, risk perception, information-seeking behaviour, cooperation, flexibility, empathy, and experience, in an artificial society. Furthermore, we simulate this model in two case studies and show that a high level of flexibility, experience, and cooperation enhances community resilience. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed.