Dietary Modulation of Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Cancer through PPAR
Mounting evidence suggests that the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) is dramatically increased for patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. For instance, patients with Crohn's Disease (CD) or Ulcerative Colitis (UC) have a 12–20% increased risk for developing CRC. Preventive strategies utilizing nontoxic natural compounds that modulate immune responses could be successful in the suppression of inflammation-driven colorectal cancer in high-risk groups. The increase of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) expression and its transcriptional activity has been identified as a target for anti-inflammatory efforts, and the suppression of inflammation-driven colon cancer. PPAR down-modulates inflammation and elicits antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions in epithelial cells. All of which may decrease the risk for inflammation-induced CRC. This review will focus on the use of orally active, naturally occurring chemopreventive approaches against inflammation-induced CRC that target PPAR and therefore down-modulate inflammation.