Driven Magnetic Flux Lines in Type-II Superconductors: Nonequilibrium Steady States and Relaxation Properties
We investigate the nonequilibrium steady state of driven magnetic flux lines in type-II superconductors subject to strong point or columnar pinning centers and the aging dynamics of nonequilibrium relaxation process in the presence of weak point pinning centers. We employ a three-dimensional elastic line model and Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. For the first part, we characterize the system by means of the force-velocity / current-voltage curve, static structure factor, mean vortex radius of gyration, number of double-kink and half-loop excitations, and velocity / voltage noise features. We compare the results for the above quantities for randomly distributed point and columnar defects. Most of both numerical works have been done in two-dimensional systems such as thin film in which the structure of flux lines is treated as a point-like particle. Our main point of investigation in this paper is to demonstrate that the vortex structure and its other transport properties may exhibit a remarkable variety of complex phenomena in three-dimensional or bulk superconductors. The second part devotes to the study of aging phenomena in the absence of a driving force in disordered superconductors with much weaker point disorder. By investigating the density autocorrelation function, we observe all three crucial properties of the aging phenomena; slow power-law relaxation, breaking of time-translation invariance, and the presence of the dynamical scaling. We measure the dynamical exponents b and lambda_c/z and compare to other work. We find exponent values increase for increasing pinning strength, smaller interaction range, lower temperature, and denser defect density while the exponents measured in other approach tend to decrease.