Coenzyme engineering of NAD(P)+ dependent dehydrogenases

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Virginia Tech

Coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, including the oxidized form-- NAD+ and reduced form--NADH) and the phosphorylated form--nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP, including NADP+ and NADPH) are two of the most important biological electron carriers. Most NAD(P) dependent redox enzymes show a preference of either NADP or NAD as an electron acceptor or donor depending on their unique metabolic roles. In biocatalysis, the low enzymatic activities with unnatural coenzymes have made it difficult to replace costly NADP with economically advantageous NAD or other biomimetic coenzyme for catalysis. This is a significant challenge that must be addressed should in vitro biocatalysis be a viable option for the practical production of low-value biocommodities (i.e., biohydrogen). There is a significant need to first address the coenzyme selectivity of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases and evolve mutated enzymes that accept biomimetic coenzymes. This is a major focus of this dissertation.

Establishment of efficient screening methods to identify beneficial mutants from an enzymatic library is the most challenging task of coenzyme engineering of dehydrogenases. To fine tune the coenzyme preference of dehydrogenases to allow economical hydrogen production, we developed a double-layer Petri-dish based screening method to identify positive mutant of the Moorella thermoacetica 6PGDH (Moth6PGDH) with a more than 4,278-fold reversal of coenzyme selectivity from NADP+ to NAD+. This method was also used to screen the thermostable mutant of a highly active glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the mesophilic host Zymomonas mobilis. The resulting best mutant Mut 4-1 showed a more than 124-fold improvement of half-life times at 60oC without compromising the specific activity. The screening method was further upgraded for the coenzyme engineering of Thermotaga maritima 6PGDH (Tm6PGDH) on the biomimetic coenzyme NMN+. Through six-rounds of directed evolution and screening, the best mutant showed a more than 50-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency on NMN+ and a more than 6-fold increased hydrogen productivity rate from 6-phosphogluconate and NMN+ compared to those of wild-type enzyme. Together, these results demonstrated the effectiveness of screening methods developed in this research for coenzyme engineering of NAD(P) dependent dehydrogenase and efficient use of the less costly coenzyme in ivSB based hydrogen production.

coenzyme engineering, NAD(P) dependent dehydrogenases, directed evolution, high-throughput screening, biohydrogen, in vitro synthetic biology