Observational Characterization of the Ecological and Environmental Features Associated with the Presence of Oropouche Virus and the Primary Vector Culicoides paraenesis: Data Synthesis and Systematic Review


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Oropouche virus (OROV), a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus, is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) and is the etiologic agent of human and animal disease. The primary vector of OROV is presumed to be the biting midge, Culicoides paraenesis, though Culex quinquefasciatus, Cq. venezuelensis, and Aedes serratus mosquitoes are considered secondary vectors. The objective of this systematic review is to characterize locations where OROV and/or its primary vector have been detected. Synthesis of known data through review of published literature regarding OROV and vectors was carried out through two independent searches: one search targeted to OROV, and another targeted towards the primary vector. A total of 911 records were returned, but only 90 (9.9%) articles satisfied all inclusion criteria. When locations were characterized, some common features were noted more frequently than others, though no one characteristic was significantly associated with presence of OROV using a logistic classification model. In a separate correlation analysis, vector presence was significantly correlated only with the presence of restingas. The lack of significant relationships is likely due to the paucity of data regarding OROV and its eco-epidemiology and highlights the importance of continued focus on characterizing this and other neglected tropical diseases.



Oropouche, Culicoides paraenesis, arbovirus, febrile illness