Scholarly Works, Global Forum on Urban and Regional Resilience

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  • Multi-resolution in architecture as a design driver for additive manufacturing applications
    Ladron de Guevara, Manuel; Borunda, Luis R.; Byrne, Daragh; Krishnamurti, Ramesh (Sage Publishers, 2020-09-01)
    Additive manufacturing is evolving toward more sophisticated territory for architects and designers, mainly through the increased use of scripting tools. Recognizing this, we present a design and fabrication pipeline comprised of a class of techniques for fabrication and methods of design through discrete computational models. These support a process responsive to varied design intents: this structured workflow expands the design and fabrication space of any input shape, without having to explicitly deal with the complexity of discrete models beforehand. We discuss a multi-resolution-based methodology that incorporates discrete computational methods, spatial additive manufacturing with both robotic and commercial three-dimensional printers, as well as, a free-oriented technique. Finally, we explore the impact of computational power on design outcome, examining in-depth the concept of resolution as a design driver.
  • A Multi-resolution Design Methodology Based on Discrete Models
    Ladron de Guevara, Manuel; Borunda, Luis R.; Krishnamurti, Ramesh (Springer Singapore, 2019-01-01)
    The use of programming languages in design opens up unexplored and previously unworkable territories, mainly, in conventional architectural practice. In the 1990s, languages of continuity, smoothness and seamlessness dominated the architectural inquiry with the CNC milling machine as its manufacturing tool. Today’s computational design and fabrication technology look at languages of synthesis of fragments or particles, with the 3D printer as its fabrication archetype. Fundamental to this idea is the concept of resolution–the amount of information stored at any localized region. Construction of a shape is then based on multiple regions of resolution. This paper explores a novel design methodology that takes this concept of resolutions on discrete elements as a design driver for architectural practice. This research has been tested primarily through additive manufacturing techniques.
  • Stereovision Combined With Particle Tracking Velocimetry Reveals Advection and Uplift Within a Restraining Bend Simulating the Denali Fault
    Toeneboehn, Kevin; Cooke, Michele L.; Bemis, Sean P.; Fendick, Anne M. (Frontiers, 2018-10-10)
    Scaled physical experiments allow us to directly observe deformational processes that take place on time and length scales that are impossible to observe in the Earth's crust. Successful evaluation of advection and uplift of material within a restraining bend along a strike-slip fault zone depends on capturing the evolution of strain in three dimensions. Consequently, we require deformation within the horizontal plane as well as vertical motions. While 3D digital image correlation systems can provide this information, their high costs have prompted us to develop techniques that require only two DSLR cameras and a few Matlab (R) toolboxes, which are available to researchers at many institutions. Matlab (R) plug-ins can perform particle image velocimetry (PIV), a technique used in many analog modeling studies to map the incremental displacements fields. For tracking material advection throughout experiments more suitable Matlab (R) plug-ins perform particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), which tracks the complete two-dimensional displacement path of individual particles. To capture uplift the Matlab (R) Computer Vision Toolbox (TM), uses pairs of photos to capture the evolving topography of the experiment. The stereovision approach eliminates the need to stop the experiment to perform 3D laser scans, which can be problematic when working with materials that have time dependent rheology. We demonstrate how the combination of PIV, PTV, and stereovision analysis of experiments that simulate the Mount McKinley restraining bend reveal the evolution of the fault system and three-dimensional advection of material through the bend.
  • Global Effects of U.S. Dividend Income Tax
    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis; Tsang, Kwok Ping (Virginia Tech, 2016-07-27)
    Do non-U.S. firms respond to the U.S. dividend income tax? To explore this question, we examine the 2003 dividend tax cut which only applies to certain non-U.S. firms depending on both tax treaties and corresponding foreign withholding taxes. We find that 1) foreign firms from which U.S. investors enjoy the full tax cut become more likely to initiate or increase their dividends; 2) such changes are stronger across those foreign firms that are bigger, index-included and with higher credit rating; and 3) these firms also respond consistently to the expiry of the tax cut.
  • Conceptualizing Financial Resilience: The Challenges for Urban Theory
    Bieri, David S. (Virginia Tech, 2016-01)
    This chapter outlines an urban theory of ‘financial resilience’ that accounts for the fact that the concurrent processes of urbanization and financialization render the economic system at once resilient and unstable. The notion of financial resilience thus conceived helps to advance our understanding of the processes of globalized urbanization in an era of financialized capitalism. Rejecting the classical notion of ‘monetary neutrality’, such a theory of resilience highlights that the particular behavioral attributes of a capitalist economy evolve around the (spatial) impact of money, credit and finance upon system behavior. One of my central claims in this regard is that the resilience of the monetary-financial system is an enduring theme that characterizes the historical reality of the American metropolis. The position outlined here envisions establishing ‘financial resilience’ as an analytical concept for urban theory that captures the systemic behavior of capitalist development in terms of the historical and institutional co-evolution of the process of urbanization and the monetary-financial system as a whole. In relating financial resilience to modes of urban capitalist governance and regulation, the discussion of the spatial aspects of financial resilience is cast both in terms of an institutional view of resilience (the resilience of both micro- and macro-level entities) and, in terms of a functional view of resilience (the resilience of funding flows and asset flows).
  • Back to the Future: Lösch, Isard, and the Role of Money and Credit in the Space-Economy
    Bieri, David S. (Virginia Tech, 2016-08)
    The recent financial crisis has been a powerful reminder that the intersectoral flow of funds is also—always and everywhere—a local phenomenon with real effects. Yet, the contemporary canon of regional economic theory has enshrined the classical dichotomy, treating the spheres of money and production as analytically distinct. Consequently, the current literature has little to say about monetary phenomena and their spatial consequences. The widespread disengagement of regional scientists with respect to issues of money, credit and banking represents a radical break with the discipline’s intellectual origins over half a century ago. This chapter re-examines the monetary content of some of the foundational works in regional science. In particular, I argue that August Lösch andWalter Isard, the former a student of Joseph Schumpeter’s and the latter a student of Alvin Hansen’s, both represent important branches in the long lineage of 20th century continental and U.S. monetary thought, respectively. In doing so, this chapter also outlines key elements of a research agenda that reengages with regional aspects of money and credit, casting them as central pillars of a Lösch-Isard synthesis.
  • Financial Stability Rearticulated: Institutional Reform, Post-Crisis Governance, and the New Regulatory Landscape in the United States
    Bieri, David S. (Virginia Tech, 2015-02)
    The recent financial crisis was a powerful reminder that the inherent instability of the monetary-financial system is likely to entail serious consequences for the real economy. In the U.S., the monumental Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank Act”) has provided legislation that aims to institutionalise several aspects a new thinking on financial stability. In addition to the interagency Financial Stability Oversight Council (“FSOC”), the creation of the The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) marks an important departure from the U.S. regulatory tradition of de-centralized agencies whereby the institutional locus of financial oversight depended on the precise nature of the legal structure of and business activities pursued by individual financial intermediaries. In its mandate and institutional structure, the CFPB unifies both “micro-prudential” and “macro- prudential” principles of financial regulation to enhance overall financial stability. From an historical perspective, the creation of the CFPB does not change the regulatory landscape to the same extent as did the creation of the Federal Reserve after the Panic of 1907 or the creation of the FDIC after the 1933 Banking Crisis. At the same time, however, the CFPB represents an important historical shift in the policy focus of U.S. financial regulation away from bank stability bank to a broad notion of financial stability that recognises the increased financialisation of households’ welfare.