Scholarly Works, Apparel, Housing, and Resource Management

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Research articles, presentations, and other scholarship


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  • The impact of fashion merchandising internships on careers
    Robeck, Jacquelene; Pate, Sharon; Pattison, Allison; Pattison, Jessica (2013-10-30)
    This research describes the exploration, expansion, and enhancement of fashion merchandising internships from 1998-2010 in a small fashion merchandising program of 100 students in a mid-sized southern state university. This study examines the relationship of the college internship and the graduate’s current job. Academic departments continuously review curriculum and consider the inclusion, continuation, enhancement, or deletion of a college internship in their programs. Often questions arise, such as, Should the fashion merchandising program curriculum require an internship for credit; what is the value of the internship; is an internship experience measureable? Internship records were kept for 13 years at a United States public university. Number, internship placement sites, and current employment of college graduates was analyzed. The purposes of this study were to examine the components of fashion merchandising internships and assess the impact of factors such as university regulations and small town internship employers on students’ careers after graduation. This research study revealed that internships at non-local fashion businesses were positively related to successful current fashion employment. Continuation of an internship program is determined by internship placement sites, graduates’ current jobs and locations, local and non-local fashion businesses, and faculty recommendations.
  • Sustainable Arthurdale: A Reevalution of a 1930s Planned Community
    Galford, Gregory; Tucker, Lisa M.; Martin, Lou (University of Illinois Press, 2023-05-05)
    The Great Depression affected Appalachian towns with severe economic distress and dislocation. This research focuses on a New Deal experiment in sustainable housing initiated by Eleanor Roosevelt. Early in her husband’s administration, she championed the design and construction of the planned community of Arthurdale, West Virginia. Composed of single-family homes built during three phases with a central complex of shared services, the planned town of Arthurdale has retained connections to several original residents and maintains a strong sense of community and belonging. This research explores the community design components—particularly the innovative education system—of Arthurdale, coupled with the sustainable features inherent in the houses and its approach to sustenance farming, and considers the impact on the long-term success of the residents. For this work, a mixed-methods approach was used with an initial quantitative survey and a subsequent focus group. Survey results indicated that themes of sustainability, community, and education were values that were uniquely shared by original town residents and subsequent generations. These values can affect contemporary models of sustainable community development.
  • The effect of fan-themed apparel products’ signal explicitness on fans’ perceptions: the moderating effect of fanship
    Smith-Glaviana, Dina C.; Lee, Jung Eun (2022-06-05)
    This study investigated how film franchise fans with varying levels of fanship perceive subtle versus explicit signals featured on fan-themed apparel products. A between-subjects experimental design was conducted with two fan-themed t-shirt designs (explicit vs. subtle) × fanship (low vs. high). In this study, the joint effect between subtle vs. explicit designs and fanship was examined to address perceived differentiation, social connection, and purchase intention. For perceived differentiation and social connection, fans with high fanship perceived the subtle design to be more effective than explicit designs. While fans with low fanship perceived the subtle design to be more effective for differentiation, they perceived that the explicit design facilitated social connection more than the subtle design. When fans perceived that signals featured on fan-themed apparel products differentiated themselves from others and facilitated social connection, their purchase intentions increased. The study yielded several theoretical and practical implications. First, the study contributed to the literature on signaling theory, extending the definition of subtle signals to include a more diverse range of design details, such as the content of graphics rather than the visibility and size of brand logos. The study also extended the use of signaling theory and optimal distinctiveness theory to new research areas of fan-themed products. Second, practical implications for producers, marketers, and retailers of fan-themed apparel included the consideration of developing fan-themed apparel with subtle signals, co-creating products with fans, and targeting female fans through more inclusive merchandising practices.
  • How our homes control our behavior
    Galford, Gregory (2021-01-11)
    Presentation sponsored by the Virginia Tech Center for the Humanities focused on behavioral effects of environmental controls within residential environments, with a special focus on correctional living spaces.
  • Resilient Experiences in Appalachian Housing: Architectural Experiments in Planned Housing
    Galford, Gregory (2021-03-11)
    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate research regarding historic experiments in Appalachian social housing to glean lessons for future successful housing models. This research is significant as housing in the region if often viewed through conventional lenses that do not reflect the rich histories of different experiments in Appalachian housing. This presentation will focus on two Depression era housing developments in West Virginia. This presentation and paper will highlight some of these historic endeavors to make the housing of Appalachia’s residents an important topic within studies of the region. This presentation will rely on a mixed methods approach that will utilize observation, analysis of historic documents and potential interviews with current residents. The presentation will rely heavily on a review of the literature around the topic to frame and solicit questions. Expected findings include a disconnect between planning of ideal housing systems and the actual user, problems with technology regarding construction standards, and adaptation of homes over time to reflect changing demographics within the region. This will highlight both successes and failures of these centrally planned housing systems. This work will inform future planners and policymakers in the region by providing a template to aid in the planning of the next iteration of housing infrastructure in the region.
  • Arthurdale Reviewed: Sustainable New Deal Housing in Appalachia
    Galford, Gregory; Tucker, Lisa M. (2021-05-21)
    This work in progress is connected to Eleanor Roosevelt’s passion to provide residents of an Appalachian coal-mining town an opportunity to live in a community based on principles of sustainability and social justice. Arthurdale, West Virginia was designed as an ideal community with each family receiving a new home and a plot of land with sufficient acreage to produce their own needs for food. Each home had its own above-ground root cellar and was designed to make the family as independent as possible. Local artisan workshops provided wage-earning jobs and community functions were housed in a town center building. This work in progress revisits that town to learn from the residents how the models have transformed with time. Most houses are still in existence, but with alterations to suit changing needs. The goal of this study is to see what insights of sustainable design can be gleaned from the lived experience of its residents over time. A mixed methods approach will be used, with both surveys and interviews used as tools within both a quantitative and qualitative framework. Expected results will find that longitudinal differences in family lifestyle are reflected in home renovations, and the demographic changes in family makeup have had a strong influence on home adaptations. As new generations of homeowners seek innovations in housing models, the historical lessons of Arthurdale can provide relevance.
  • Doing time: Perceptions of time within correctional environments
    Galford, Gregory (2021-05-19)
    Time as an environmental factor has been felt differently this past year as everyone has had to remain in close quarters and in isolation from others. The infringement on our movement has led us to have different perceptions of our immediate environment. We know that the passage of time has largely seemed both slow and fast (Levine, 2008). The purpose of this study is to investigate how people sense time within environments that control them. This research addresses the question of whether we can learn about our own time perceptions when inhabiting physically controlling environments for a long period (Bauman & Lyon, 2013). The literature for this review relies heavily on philosophy, surveillance studies, and criminology. Philosophical writings by Merleau-Ponty, Husserl, Freud, and Heidegger act as conceptual frames for the research, and identify gaps in design literature that connect perceptions of space to time (Merleau-Ponty, 1962). The design of this work is qualitative in methodology with grounded theory used as a method to code the data for emergent themes. The data was collected within two prisons in a large northeastern state where stakeholders had direct experience with solitary confinement environments. Interviews, observations, document analysis, and photographic analysis were used as research tools. Findings are that mental well-being is connected to a personal ability to positively engage time in restricted housing environments (Rapoport, 1982). Inmates use a variety of tools including faith, family support, personal artifacts connected to memory, views to nature beyond, and personal meditation.
  • Lessons in New Deal Housing: Historic Rural Prototypes
    Galford, Gregory (2021-11-01)
    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate historic experiments in Appalachian New Deal government planned housing to glean lessons for future prototypes. This research is significant as housing in the region is often viewed through perspectives that reflect private company towns but not governmentally planned ones. This presentation will focus on Depression era housing developments in West Virginia. A particular focus will be a town that was a project of Eleanor Roosevelt and had her support throughout her husband’s administration. It had a goal of providing a sustainable lifestyle to its residents, with a focus on food production and storage. This presentation will utilize relevant literature to examine both issues and policies that act as a framework around the topic, and as a foundation for future research that will rely on a mixed methods approach. Those future research tools will include observation, analysis of historic documents, and interviews and surveys with current residents. This presentation will focus on the contextual setting for decisions and actions related to the construction of the town and will solicit questions from the audience to aid with the shape of the future work. A goal of the work is to highlight both the successes and failures of these centrally planned towns, and an aim of the next phase of research is to obtain findings that will aid planners and policymakers regarding the future of Appalachian housing.
  • Resilient Experiments in Rural Housing: Architectural Experiments in Planned Housing
    Galford, Gregory; Tucker, Lisa M. (2021-11-18)
    Single family houses contribute substantially to climate change in the US and other parts of the world. In the US specifically, most housing has been designed by builders and developers. The motivation has not been sustainability and a knowledge of how to design net zero energy and net zero water dwelling is not commonly understood. This paper seeks to use a historical model as viewed through the lens of the Living Building Challenge to demonstrate how an architect designed historic example might provide a way of implementing a cutting-edge approach to sustainable housing today. Arthurdale was an early 20th century housing experiment that was conceptualized to provide for sustainable living in rural Appalachia. This paper presents the history of the region, an overview of the houses and the Living Building Challenge and then analyses how this historic prototype might model a sustainable housing development today using the Living Building Challenge system.
  • Public responses to COVID-19 case disclosure and their spatial implications
    Lee, Kwan Ok; Lee, Hyojung (2021-10-25)
    We study how the public changes their mobility and retail spending patterns as precautionary responses to the disclosed location of COVID-19 cases. To look into the underlying mechanisms, we investigate how such change varies spatially and whether there is any spatial spillover or substitution. We use the daily data of cell phone-based mobility and credit card transactions between February 10 and May 31 in both 2019 and 2020 in Seoul, South Korea, and employ the empirical approach analyzing the year-over-year percent change for the mobility and consumption outcomes. Results report that one additional COVID-19 case within the last 14 days decreased nonresident inflow and retail spending by 0.40 and 0.65 percentage points, respectively. Then, we also find evidence of spatial heterogeneity: the mobility and retail performances of neighborhoods with higher residential population density were more resilient to COVID-19 case information while neighborhoods with higher levels of land-use diversity and retail agglomeration experienced a greater localized demand shock. This heterogeneity is not negligible. For example, one additional COVID-19 case in neighborhoods in the bottom 20% for population density led to a decline of 1.2 percentage points in retail spending, while other neighborhoods experienced a less negative impact. Finally, we find a significant spatial spillover effect of disclosed COVID-19 information instead of spatial substitution. One additional COVID-19 case in geographically adjacent areas within the last 14 days reduced nonresident inflow and retail spending in the subject neighborhood by 0.06 and 0.09 percentage points, respectively.
  • Are Millennials leaving town? Reconciling peak Millennials and youthification hypotheses
    Lee, Hyojung (2021-01-11)
    Are Millennials leaving town? Yes, they are. Are young adults leaving town? No, they are not. The seemingly contradicting answers are due to the fact that age and birth cohort are distinct concepts. Showing how these two phenomena can coexist, this paper aims to provide detailed and timely information on how Millennials are faring compared to previous generations in the United States. Using the 1962-2019 Current Population Survey (CPS), the paper first analyzes the current status of Millennials, in terms of various demographic and socio-economic dimensions, and compares them with those of older generations at the same ages. The results indicate that Millennials did experience delays in transition into adulthood, but they have started to catch up in recent years. Then this paper examines the residential location of young adults and Millennials across metropolitan status, and across urban and suburban areas of the largest 50 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States. The analysis based on the confidential version of the 2006-2019 American Community Survey (ACS) microdata confirms that the early Millennials have started to migrate from urban to suburban areas, consistent with the peak Millennial hypothesis, and that the urban presence of young adults has increased over time, consistent with the youthification hypothesis. Reconciling the two hypotheses, this paper discusses the implications of ongoing demographic shifts for the future urban landscape. Highlights Early Millennials have started to migrate to suburbs as they age into their 30s. Yet, the presence of young adults age 25-34 in urban areas has also grown. This study reconciles the two seemingly conflicting trends with empirical evidence. Policymakers need to address the shift in Millennial demand towards suburban homes. Policymakers should also expect sustained demand for urban living among young adults.
  • Residential Satisfaction of Rural Older Adults Aging in Place
    Lee, Sung-Jin; Parrott, Kathleen Rose; Lee, Minyong; Robinson, Sheryl Renee; Owusu, Ricky Nimako (2021-02)
    This study explored residential (housing and town) satisfaction of rural older adults aging in place, relating to demographic and housing characteristics. We conducted a structured, face-to-face survey with 149 rural older adults. Regression results revealed that housing satisfaction for rural older adults were significantly related to demographic and housing characteristics, including personal health status, healthy home status, and structure size. Bivariate analysis revealed that satisfaction with a town feature, shopping location, was the most frequently related to demographic and housing variables, followed by cost of living in town; and that health status was most frequently associated with town feature satisfaction. The study results can enhance programs and/or services for older adults aging in rural communities.
  • The Impacts of the Neighborhood Built Environment on Social Capital for Middle-Aged and Elderly Koreans
    Hwang, Eunju; Brossoie, Nancy; Jeong, Jin Wook; Song, Kimin (MDPI, 2021-01-14)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the neighborhood built environment (NBE) aspects of age-friendly cities and communities (AFCCs) and social capital in the Korean context. We described and compared age differences when analyzing misfits of AFCC NBE and impacts on social capital. We collected the data (N = 1246) from two Korean communities; our multiple and binary logistic regression outcomes show that AFCC NBE aspects such as outdoor spaces, transportation, and housing are significant predictors of different subcategories of social capital. For the older group, the outdoor spaces misfit was significant for all three subcategories of social capital, but transportation and housing misfits were significant for the social trust and reciprocity index scores. For the middle-aged group, the outdoor spaces misfit was significant for social networking and participation, and a transportation misfit was significant for participation and social trust and reciprocity. Fewer misfits or better fits of outdoor spaces and transportation encouraged more networking, participation, social trust, and reciprocity. Dwelling type was important to predict social capital, especially for the older group. The present study confirmed the importance of AFCC NBE in predicting social capital and unique factors in the Korean context.
  • Bank adaptation to neighborhood change: Mortgage lending and the Community Reinvestment Act
    Lee, Hyojung; Bostic, Raphael W. (2020-03)
    This research explores whether banks strategically leverage regulatory rules for the Community Reinvestment Act that fix a neighborhood's eligibility status over a decade based on a neighborhood's economic trajectory over that decade. Using 2004-2011 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data, we find that banks approve loans more frequently in those neighborhoods that are most rapidly improving, and that this effect is stronger if the neighborhoods are CRA-eligible low- and moderate-income (LMI) tracts. We find the "moving up" CRA premium ranges in magnitude from a 2 to 13 percent reduction in the likelihood an application is not approved. These results suggest that banks learn which neighborhoods are most rapidly improving and funnel activity to those places to reduce default risk while complying with the fair lending regulation. The results imply a potential unanticipated consequence of the regulation is that it changes the distribution of resources within the target population.
  • Strategic Business Development and Client Prospecting in the Third-Party Apartment Management Industry
    Read, Dustin C.; Goss, Rosemary Carucci; Hopkins, Erin (2017)
    Intensifying competition and increasing market demands are forcing many third-party apartment management firms to re-evaluate their approach to business development and client prospecting. In some instances, these companies are becoming more selective about both the assignments they take on and the property owners with whom they work. Careful consideration is frequently given to a number of factors to determine if new business opportunities are a good strategic fit. This paper examines how sophisticated fee management firms make such determinations by examining the perspectives of executives representing 25 of the largest multifamily operators in the United States. The results indicate heavy reliance on relational approaches to business development, limited long-range planning, and informal channels of communication often encourage fee managers to pursue new business in an ad hoc manner despite market conditions favouring more systematic behaviour. A series of best practices are put forth to address these concerns.
  • Gender differences in financial risk tolerance
    Fisher, Patricia J.; Yao, Rui (Elsevier, 2017-08-01)
    The purpose of this research is to explore gender differences in financial risk tolerance using a large, nationally representative dataset, the Survey of Consumer Finances. The impact of the explanatory variables in the model is allowed to differ between men and women to decompose gender differences in financial risk tolerance. The results indicate that gender differences in financial risk tolerance are explained by gender differences in the individual determinants of financial risk tolerance, and that the disparity does not result from gender in and of itself. The individual variables that moderate the relationship between gender and high risk tolerance are income uncertainty and net worth, with income uncertainty moderating the relationship between gender and some risk tolerance. Financial fiduciaries should understand the differences in income uncertainty and net worth between men and women and how those differences relate to risk tolerance.
  • Comparisons of fabric care performances between conventional and high-efficiency washers and dryers
    Chen-Yu, Jessie H.; Emmel, JoAnn (2018-08-30)
    High-efficiency (HE) washers use 35–50% less water and about 50% less energy per load than conventional washers. However, there has been a consistent debate as to whether HE washers perform better or worse in garment care than conventional washers. Consumers need research-based information that would help them make informed decisions concerning the purchase of a clothes washer. The purpose of this study was to compare fabric hand, appearance retention (strain removal, color change, and fabric smoothness), and dimension stability (dimensional change and skewness change) after the specimens were repeatedly washed and dried for up to 20 cycles in three combinations of washer and dryer used: (a) conventional washer and dryer, (b) HE washer and conventional dryer, and (c) HE washer and dryer. The results showed that the specimens washed in the HE washer had better fabric hand and were smoother (fewer wrinkles) than those washed in the conventional washer. Conventional and HE washers performed similarly in color change, dimensional change, and skewness change. In regard to dryer, all results except those for stain removal showed no significant differences between the specimens dried in the conventional dryer and those dried in the HE dryer. In stain removal, when a softener was not used, the conventional dryer removed more stains from the specimens than the HE dryer. However, when a softener was used, the stains on the specimens dried in the conventional dryer were more difficult to remove than those on the specimens dried in the HE dryer.
  • Effects of price discount on consumers’ perceptions of savings, quality, and value for apparel products: mediating effect of price discount affect
    Lee, Jung E.; Chen-Yu, Jessie H. (2018-02-15)
    Extending the price–quality–value model (Monroe and Krishnan in The perception of merchandise and store quality 209–232, 1985) and means-end model (Zeithaml in J Mark 52:2–22, 1988), we developed a conceptual model to investigate the mediating role of price discount affect (feeling aroused by price discounts) in the relationship between price discounts and consumers’ perceptions (perceived savings, quality, and value) and in the relationship between perceived value and purchase intentions in the context of online apparel products. A between-subject experimental design with four levels of price discounts (10, 30, 50, and 70%) was used. Jeans were selected as the product stimulus. Web pages were developed to create a fictional online store and to collect data. A total of 209 usable responses were collected by a research firm in the United States, and structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results showed that price discount affect played an important mediating role in the relationship between price discounts and consumers’ perceptions. When the direct effect of price discounts on perceived quality was examined, consumers perceived the apparel product with higher discounts as lower quality (i.e., a negative direct relationship). However, when price discount affect served as a mediator, the feelings created by a price discount led to a positive perception of product quality (i.e., a positive indirect relationship). By considering the influence of price discount affect, our model provides a better understanding of the effect of price discounts on consumers’ perceptions of apparel products.