- How does IPM 3.0 look like (and why do we need it in Africa)?Tamo, Manuele; Glitho, Isabelle; Tepa-Yotto, Ghislain; Muniappan, Rangaswamy (Elsevier, 2022-10)The concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) was introduced sixty years ago to curb the overuse of agricultural pesticides, whereby its simplest version (IPM 1.0) was aiming at reducing the frequency of applications. Gradually, agro-ecological principles, such as biological control and habitat management, were included in IPM 2.0. However, throughout this time, smallholder farmers did not improve their decision -making skills and continue to use hazardous pesticides as their first control option. We are therefore proposing a new paradigm - IPM 3.0 - anchored on 3 pillars: 1) real-time farmer access to decision-making, 2) pest-management options relying on science-driven and nature-based approaches, and 3) the integration of genomic approaches, biopesticides, and habitat -management practices. We are convinced that this new paradigm based on technological advances, involvement of youth, gender-responsiveness, and climate resilience will be a game changer. However, this can only become effective through redeployment of public funding and stronger policy support.
- IPM for tropical crops: lentilSharma, Anamika; Muniappan, Rangaswamy (CABI, 2021)Lentil is an old-world legume and grown in more than 70 countries. It is a major source of protein in plant-based diets and is often used to fix nitrogen in the soil as a rotational crop, especially with cereal crops. Canada, USA, and Australia are the major exporters of lentil. Around the globe, this crop faces various biotic and abiotic stresses. More than 35 insect pests and the same number of diseases are reported to infest lentil in different parts of the world. While the status of insect pests and diseases varies in different geographical regions, some of them are aphids, armyworm, cutworm, pod borer, Stemphylium blight, fusarium wilt, Alternaria blight, and rust. Cultural management strategies for abiotic and biotic stresses include crop rotation, the timing of seeding, appropriate seed rates, and weed management. Biological control agents are also known for several insect pests. Environmental-friendly options such as biopesticides and microbials (entomopathogenic bacteria, fungi and nematodes, neem products, and Trichoderma sp.) can be used as seed treatment and foliar application. Various tolerant and resistant lentil varieties are available around the globe. In the present article, we provide an IPM package for the management of major biotic stresses for lentil crop.
- Predicting the Current and Future Distribution of the Invasive Weed Ageratina adenophora in the Chitwan–Annapurna Landscape, NepalPoudel, Anju Sharma; Shrestha, Bharat Babu; Joshi, Mohan Dev; Muniappan, Rangaswamy (Muni); Adiga, Abhijin (International Mountain Society, 2020-05)With increasing globalization, trade, and human movement, the rate of alien species introduction has increased all around the globe. In addition, climate change is thought to exacerbate the situation by allowing range expansion of invasive species into new areas. Predicting the distribution of invasive species under conditions of climate change is important for identifying susceptible areas of invasion and developing strategies for limiting their expansion. We used Maxent modeling to predict the distribution of one of the world’s most aggressive invasive weeds, Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) R. King and H. Robinson, in the Chitwan–Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) of Nepal under current conditions and 3 future climate change trajectories based on 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5) in 2 different time periods (2050 and 2070) using species occurrence data, and bioclimatic and topographic variables. Minimum temperature in the coldest month was the most important variable affecting the distribution of A. adenophora. About 38% (12,215 km2) of the CHAL area is climatically suitable for A. adenophora, with the Middle Mountain physiographic region being the most suitable one. A predicted increase in current suitable areas ranges from 1 to 2% under future climate scenarios (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). All protected areas and 3 physiographic regions (Siwaliks, High Mountain, High Himalaya) are likely to gain climatically suitable areas in future climate scenarios. The upper elevational distribution limit of the weed is expected to expand by 31–48 m in future climate scenarios, suggesting that the weed will colonize additional areas at higher elevations in the future. In conclusion, our results showed that a vast area of CHAL is climatically suitable for A. adenophora. Expected further range expansion and upslope migration in the future make it essential to initiate effective management measures to prevent further negative impacts of this invasive plant.
- Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Integrated Pest Management 2021 Semi-Annual Report (Sept. 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021)(Virginia Tech, 2021)This is the 2021 semi-annual report for the IPM Innovation Lab, covering the period of September 1, 2020, through March 31, 2021.
- Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Integrated Pest Management 2020 Annual Report(Virginia Tech, 2020)This is the 2020 annual report for the IPM Innovation Lab. While 2020 has been marked by the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, the IPM Innovation Lab (IPM IL) has continued to see progress in its projects.
- 2020 Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Integrated Pest Management Semi-Annual Report(Virginia Tech, 2020)Published every year, our reports detail work, accomplishments, training, and publications from each of our programs.
- Climatic Trends in Different Bioclimatic Zones in the Chitwan Annapurna Landscape, NepalLuitel, Dol Raj; Jha, Pramod K.; Siwakoti, Mohan; Shrestha, Madan Lall; Muniappan, Rangaswamy (Muni) (MDPI, 2020-11-20)The Chitwan Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) is the central part of the Himalayas and covers all bioclimatic zones with major endemism of flora, unique agro-biodiversity, environmental, cultural and socio-economic importance. Not much is known about temperature and precipitation trends along the different bioclimatic zones nor how changes in these parameters might impact the whole natural process, including biodiversity and ecosystems, in the CHAL. Analysis of daily temperature and precipitation time series data (1970–2019) was carried out in seven bioclimatic zones extending from lowland Terai to the higher Himalayas. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to determine the trends, which were quantified by Sen’s slope. Annual and decade interval average temperature, precipitation trends, and lapse rate were analyzed in each bioclimatic zone. In the seven bioclimatic zones, precipitation showed a mixed pattern of decreasing and increasing trends (four bioclimatic zones showed a decreasing and three bioclimatic zones an increasing trend). Precipitation did not show any particular trend at decade intervals but the pattern of rainfall decreases after 2000AD. The average annual temperature at different bioclimatic zones clearly indicates that temperature at higher elevations is increasing significantly more than at lower elevations. In lower tropical bioclimatic zone (LTBZ), upper tropical bioclimatic zone (UTBZ), lower subtropical bioclimatic zone (LSBZ), upper subtropical bioclimatic zone (USBZ), and temperate bioclimatic zone (TBZ), the average temperature increased by 0.022, 0.030, 0.036, 0.042 and 0.051 °C/year, respectively. The decade level temperature scenario revealed that the hottest decade was from 1999–2009 and average decade level increases of temperature at different bioclimatic zones ranges from 0.2 to 0.27 °C /decade. The average temperature and precipitation was found clearly different from one bioclimatic zone to other. This is the first time that bioclimatic zone level precipitation and temperature trends have been analyzed for the CHAL. The rate of additional temperature rise at higher altitudes compared to lower elevations meets the requirements to mitigate climate change in different bioclimatic zones in a different ways. This information would be fundamental to safeguarding vulnerable communities, ecosystem and relevant climate-sensitive sectors from the impact of climate change through formulation of sector-wise climate change adaptation strategies and improving the livelihood of rural communities.
- Prevalence of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola and its impact on Parthenium hysterophorus in Kathmandu Valley, NepalMaharjan, Seerjana; Devkota, Anjana; Shrestha, Bharat B.; Baniya, Chitra B.; Rangaswamy, Muniappan; Jha, Pramod K. (2020-10-21)Background Parthenium hysterophorus is a noxious invasive weed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Nepal. Among 11 species of biological control agents released to control P. hysterophorus in Ausrtalia, winter rust Puccina abrupta var. partheniicola arrived fortuitously and has established in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, nearly a decade back. However, the prevalence and effectiveness of this rust as a biological control agent in Kathmandu remain unknown. To address this knowledge gap, a roadside survey was done at an interval of 2 ± 0.25 km in Kathmandu Valley to assess the P. abrupta var. partheniicola incidence and its impacts on P. hysterophorus. Infested individuals of P. hysterophorus were further divided into four severity classes (very low, low, medium, and high), and rust incidence was calculated. The impact of the winter rust on the growth of P. hysterophorus was assessed by comparing biomass and seed output of infested and non-infested individuals. Results Among 81 locations where P. hysterophorus was present in the Kathmandu Valley, winter rust infestation was observed at 98% locations. At some locations within Kathmandu Valley such as Tinkune, Kirtipur, Chabahil, Buddha Chowk, and Dhobighat, the impacts of the rust on P. hysterophorus were medium to high. Aboveground biomass and seed output of P. hysterophorus were reduced by 47% and 73%, respectively, due to winter rust infestation. The study indicates that winter rust incidence is widespread in Kathmandu Valley with very low to high levels of damages to P. hysterophorus depending on the localities. Conclusion The rust has, therefore, a potential to reduce the growth performance of P. hysterophorus, and it can be used as a component of integrated management of P. hysterophorus by introducing to other suitable areas in Nepal.
- Parasitism of Locally Recruited Egg Parasitoids of the Fall Armyworm in AfricaLaminou, Saidou A.; Ba, Malick Niango; Karimoune, Laouali; Doumma, Ali; Muniappan, Rangaswamy (Muni) (MDPI, 2020-07-09)The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an insect native to the tropical and subtropical Americas that has recently spread to Africa, where it predominately attacks maize, sorghum and other plant species. Biological control is an environmentally friendly way of combatting the pest and contributes to an integrated pest management approach. In Africa, several trichogrammatid parasitoids and Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) have been found parasitizing eggs of the FAW. In Niger, the egg parasitoids encountered include Trichogrammatoidea sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Telenomus remus Nixon. Parasitism of the FAW eggs by the two egg parasitoids was assessed in the laboratory, followed by field testing on sentinel eggs. In the laboratory, T. remus parasitized on average 78% of FAW eggs, compared to 25% for Trichogrammatoidea sp. Telenomus remus was able to parasitize egg masses that were fully covered with scales, while Trichogrammatoidea sp. parasitized only uncovered egg masses. On-farm releases of T. remus in sorghum fields caused up to 64% of FAW egg parasitism. Parasitized eggs yielded viable progeny, which can contribute to FAW egg parasitism build-up during the cropping season. Our findings lay the groundwork for the use of T. remus in augmentative releases against FAW in Africa.
- Strategies and tools for integrating gender into agriculture and nutrition curriculum: Symposium ReportJones, Kristal; Christie, Maria Elisa (Virginia Tech, 2014-07)The ‘Strategies and Tools for Integrating Gender in the Agriculture and Nutrition Curriculum’ Symposium, held in Mbour, Senegal, on June 17-18, 2014 brought together educators, development practitioners, government agents and members of the private sector for the purpose of sharing opportunities, needs, and challenges for incorporating gender into agricultural and nutrition education and research. Key speakers provided a framework for understanding gender analysis and gender issues in agriculture and nutrition and panels of private sector and university experts shared their experiences with gender in their respective fields. The main take-away from these presentations and discussions was the need to expand the notion of gender from being equated with ‘women’ to being seen as an analytical tool that can highlight exclusion and marginalization.
- US-Africa Higher Education Partnerships: Strategies and Practices for Success(Virginia Tech, 2015-03)InnovATE hosted a symposium at the University of Florida in Gainesville that was centered on preparing successful students, faculty and institutions. Speakers from USAID, Higher Education for Development, World Bank, and various Universities both domestic and in Africa contributed to panels on these three areas, as well as a panel specifically on ensuring re-entry success for African faculty studying in the U.S.
- innovATE: Building Capacity for Agricultural Training and Education in Developing Countries(Virginia Tech, 2013-09)This symposium brings together educators, administrators, and development experts whose interest lies in capacity building of agricultural education and training systems in developing countries. The symposium will collect and disseminate examples of good practices and lessons learned during the course of planning and implementing projects dedicated to efficient, effective and financially sustainable agricultural education and training institutions and systems.
- InnovATE Symposium 2017(Virginia Tech, 2017-06)How do internal or external, national or institutional policies affect agricultural education and training (AET) systems? This is an important question for sustainable development of AET systems in international development. Effective AET systems: improve organizations and institutions; develop partnerships; encourage interdisciplinary collaborations; involve the private sector; encourage and share research; strengthen curricula; improve teaching; empower women; and, advance economies. However, this work does not happen in a vacuum. Institutional and national policy environments have a large effect on the development of AET systems. This symposium provides a space to discuss lessons learned and ways forward.
- IPM Innovation Lab Newsletter, March 2018(Virginia Tech, 2018-03)Welcome to the March 2018 newsletter from the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Integrated Pest Management! We have much to update you on since last season, and we are happy to share our most recent projects, highlights, and newsworthy moments. In this issue, we'll journey to Cambodia, Nepal, D.C. and elsewhere, to meet with collaborators and leaders of Innovation Labs across the country. We will discuss the eradication of the invasive weed Parthenium in a piecethat was picked up by a Blacksburg news station. We will celebrate Women's month with interviews from some of our scientists, we'll feature an IPM IL-led Trichoderma webinar, and celebrate our successful risk assessmentof the Fall Armyworm in Egypt. We will look ahead to conferences in Baltimore. Switzerland, and other spaces around the world. We will take you on a tour of all-things IPM, agriculture, and beyond. Thank you for joining us. Happy reading to you all!