The Role of Electric Pressure/Stress Suppressing Pinhole Defect on Coalescence Dynamics of Electrified Droplet
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The dimple occurs by sudden pressure inversion at the droplet’s bottom interface when a droplet collides with the same liquid-phase or different solid-phase. The air film entrapped inside the dimple is a critical factor affecting the sequential dynamics after coalescence and causing defects like the pinhole. Meanwhile, in the coalescence dynamics of an electrified droplet, the droplet’s bottom interfaces change to a conical shape, and droplet contact the substrate directly without dimple formation. In this work, the mechanism for the dimple’s suppression (interfacial change to conical shape) was studied investigating the effect of electric pressure. The electric stress acting on a droplet interface shows the nonlinear electric pressure adding to the uniform droplet pressure. This electric stress locally deforms the droplet’s bottom interface to a conical shape and consequentially enables it to overcome the air pressure beneath the droplet. The electric pressure, calculated from numerical tracking for interface and electrostatic simulation, was at least
times bigger than the air pressure at the center of the coalescence. This work helps toward understanding the effect of electric stress on droplet coalescence and in the optimization of conditions in solution-based techniques like printing and coating.