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The `Electric' Pascal: Absolute and Dynamic Calibration Techniques
This article describes a pressure generation technique that has been applied to the task of calibrating hydraulic pressure transducers. The technique combines principles given by the Lorentz Force and Faraday's Law of Induction to generate a hydrostatic pressure within a cavity. The time history of this pressure is given by the device without reliance on a reference transducer or knowledge of: the local gravity; thermodynamic properties of the working fluid; or acceleration of the cavity. In this way, the Pascal can be defined by reference only to the standards of the Amp, the Volt, the Meter, and -- in the case of time varying pressure -- the Second. Using this technique, a prototype device has been developed using commonly available tooling and can generate pressures in the range of 0.1 to 600 Pa with relative errors of 1.5%.