Investigation of Concrete Mixtures to Reduce Differential Shrinkage Cracking in Composite Bridges
Nelson, Douglas A.
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The objective of the research presented in this thesis was to develop a concrete bridge deck topping mixture that resists the effects of differential shrinkage by decreasing shrinkage and increasing creep. . In addition, the amount of tensile creep that concrete experiences under long-term tensile stresses were quantified and compared to compressive creep values in order to gain a better understanding of how concrete behaves under tension. Test results show that the amount of tensile creep exceeded compressive creep by a factor of 2-5. Various shrinkage and creep models were compared against test data in order to quantify results and determine the best model to use for the mixes examined during this research project. Data analysis revealed that the AASHTO time dependent effects (shrinkage and creep) models outperformed the other models used in this research project. Other material property data including compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, Young's modulus of elasticity, and unrestrained shrinkage was also collected to compare against a common bridge deck topping mix to ensure that the mixes used in this research project are suitable for use in the field. A parametric study utilizing the Age Adjusted Effective Modulus (AAEM) method was performed which showed that the most important factor in reducing tensile stresses was to decrease the amount of shrinkage experienced by the concrete bridge deck topping mixture. Three concrete mixtures, one included saturated lightweight aggregates (SLWA), one including ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and one incorporating both were tested. Preliminary results show that the inclusions of SLWA into a concrete mixture reduced shrinkage by 25% and overall tensile stress by 38%.
- Masters Theses