Water Treatment: Fundamentals and Practical Implications of Bubble Formation
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Air entrainment and ozonation are the key causes of dissolved gas supersaturation and eventual bubble formation in water treatment plants. Total dissolved gas probes (TDGP) are now available to directly measure supersaturation and have many advantages compared to conventional techniques. Bubble formation during coagulation-flocculation hindered particle sedimentation, producing settled turbidities double that of solutions without dissolved gases. In a filtration study, run time to one half of initial flow was decreased by 54% when the source water was increased from 0.1 to 0.2 atm supersaturation. Indeed, even at 0.05 atm supersaturation, run length was only 21 hours in solutions without added particulate matter. A case study confirmed that bubble formation can interfere with coagulation and filtration processes at conventional treatment plants.
- Masters Theses