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dc.contributor.authorMcMillan, Naya Subiraen_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-14T20:38:47Z
dc.date.available2014-03-14T20:38:47Z
dc.date.issued2004-05-06en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-05272004-144444en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/33284
dc.description.abstractTHE APPLICABILITY AND USE OF WATERLESS HAND SANITIZER IN VETERINARY AND ANIMAL AGRICULTURAL SETTINGS Naya S. McMillan An increase in outbreaks caused by zoonotic agents has brought about intensified efforts to address the transmission of infectious organisms in animal settings. In October 2002, the CDC released recommendations for the use of waterless hand sanitizer (WHS) in human healthcare settings. The question arises whether WHS may be as effective in veterinary and animal agricultural settings given some of the dissimilarities in conditions. To address this question, three studies were conducted. The first was a retrospective analysis of a Samonella agona outbreak which occurred in 2001 at the Large Animal Teaching Hospital of the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM). The second evaluated the pattern of use and efficacy of hand hygiene products in the VMRCVM Large Animal Hospital. The third study assessed the efficacy of WHS among visitors to a childrenâ s petting zoo at the 2002 Virginia State Fair. Regarding the Salmonella outbreak, it is thought that a calf from the university owned dairy herd was the index case. A total of 16 equine patients acquired S. agona while hospitalized. The nosocomial disease incidence risk for in-house patients was estimated to be 33% (16/49). The LAH was closed for 7 months for cleaning, disinfection and renovation. The total cost of the outbreak was estimated to be at least $755,000. Waterless hand sanitizer proved useful in the veterinary hospital setting. When measured immediately after use, WHS reduced bacterial loads on the hands of 20 LAH personnel (P < 0.001). Before WHS use, HBC ranged from less than to 20 to 48,800 CFU/ml with a geometric mean of 6,926 CFU/ml. Counts after WHS use ranged from less than 20 to 23,400 with a geometric mean of 1,152 CFU/ml. Differences in before and after ranged from -4,000 to 48,200 CFU/ml with a median of 9,700 CFU/ml. The logarithmic reduction in bacterial load before and after WHS use was 0.78 (79.7%). In the petting zoo study, bacterial counts on the fingers of the children sampled before use of WHS ranged from 40 to 75,200 CFU/ml with a geometric mean of 8,653 CFU/ml. After WHS use, bacterial growth ranged from 19 to 58,400 CFU/ml with a geometric mean of 1,727 CFU/ml. Differences in before and after ranged from -35,600 to 59,400 CFU/ml with a median of 8,190 CFU/ml. The logarithmic reduction in bacterial load before and after WHS use was 0.70 (82.2%; P< 0.001). These data suggest that WHS may be of benefit in veterinary medicine and animal agriculture as a means to reduce nosocomial and zoonotic infections.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartChapter5NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartFIGURES-NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartChapter3Part2NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartChapter3,Part1-NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartChapter2NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartChapter1NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartABBREVIATIONS-NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartDEDICATION-NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartChapter4-NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartTABLESNSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartGeneralAbstractNSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartTABLEOFCONTENTS-NSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartTitlePageNSM.pdfen_US
dc.relation.haspartVITA-NSM.pdfen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectoutbreaken_US
dc.subjectSalmonellaen_US
dc.subjectveterinary hospitalen_US
dc.subjecthand hygieneen_US
dc.subjecthand sanitizeren_US
dc.subjectpetting zooen_US
dc.subjectnosocomial infectionen_US
dc.titleThe Applicability and Use of Waterless Hand Sanitizer in Veterinary and Animal Agricultural Settingsen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentVeterinary Medical Sciencesen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineVeterinary Medical Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairPierson, Frank Williamen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSriranganathan, Nammalwaren_US
dc.contributor.committeememberElvinger, Francois C.en_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05272004-144444/en_US
dc.date.sdate2004-05-27en_US
dc.date.rdate2005-07-07
dc.date.adate2004-07-07en_US


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