Complete Genome Sequence and Pathogenicity of Two Swine Parainfluenzaviruses Isolated from Pigs in the United States
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Members of the family Paramyxoviridae are non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses. A large and diverse host species are infected by paramyxoviruses, including avian, porcine, canine, bovine, equine, ovine, reptiles, aquatic species and humans. In the last few decades, many novel paramyxoviruses have emerged causing catastrophic illnesses in different aquatic and terrestrial species of animals and some of them also made the species jump to humans. Two novel paramyxoviruses 81-19252 (Texas81) and 92-7783 (ISU92) were isolated in the 1980s and 1990s from the brain of pigs that experienced respiratory and central nervous system disease from South and North Central United States. To understand their importance as swine pathogens, molecular characterization and pathogenicity studies were undertaken. The complete genome of Texas81 virus was 15456 nucleotides (nt) and ISU92 was 15480 nt in length consisting of six non-overlapping genes coding for the nucloeo- (N), phospho- (P), matrix (M, fusion (F), hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and large polymerase (L) proteins in the order 3'-N-P/C/V-M-F-HN-L-5'. The features related to virus replication and found to be conserved in most members of Paramyxoviridae were also found in swine viruses. These include: conserved and complementary 3â leader and 5â trailer regions, trinucleotide intergenic sequences, highly conserved gene start and gene stop signal sequences. The length of each gene of these two viruses was similar except for the F gene, in which ISU92 had an additional 24 nt â Uâ rich 3â untranslated region (UTR). The P gene of these viruses were predicted to express the P protein from the primary transcript and edit a portion of its mRNA to encode V and D proteins and the C protein was expected to be expressed from alternate translation initiation from the P gene as in Respiroviruses. Sequence specific features related to virus replication and host specific amino acid signatures in P, F, HN and L proteins indicated that these viruses probably originated from bovine parainfluenzavirus 3. Pairwise comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences of swine viral proteins with members of Paramyxoviridae and phylogenetic analysis based on individual genes as well as predicted amino acid sequences suggested that these viruses were novel members of the genus Respirovirus of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily and genotype A of bovine parainfluenzavirus type 3. The mild clinical signs and undetectable gross and microscopic lesions observed in swine parainfluenzavirus (sPIV3)-infected pigs indicate the inapparent nature of these viruses in pigs. Limited seroprevalence studies in serum samples collected from pig farms in Minnesota and Iowa in 2007-2008 by indirect ELISA revealed that sPIV3 are not circulating in these farms. The mild pathogenicity of sPIV3 can facilitate its development as a vaccine vector. The screening ELISA developed by us could be used to detect seroprevalence of sPIV3 in animal and human populations.
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