Normalization of Roughness Noise on the Near-Field Wall Pressure Spectrum
Alexander, William Nathan
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Roughness noise can be a significant contributor of sound in low Mach number, high Reynolds number flows. Only a small amount of experimental research has been conducted to analyze roughness noise because of its often low energy levels that are hard to isolate even in a laboratory setting. This study details efforts to scale the roughness noise while independently varying roughness size and edge velocity. Measurements were taken in the Virginia Tech Anechoic Wall Jet Facility for stochastic rough surfaces varying from hydrodynamically smooth to fully rough as well as deterministic rough surfaces including 1mm and 3mm hemispheres and a 2D wavy wall. Inner and outer variable normalizations were applied to recorded far field data in an attempt to find specific driving variables of the roughness noise. Also, a newly formulated derivation that attempts to scale the far field sound from a single point wall pressure measurement was used to collapse the far field noise. From the results, the inner and outer variable scalings were unable to collapse the noise generated by all velocities and roughness sizes. The changing spectral shapes of noise generated by rough surfaces with significantly varying wavenumber spectra make it impossible to scale the produced noise using the proposed inner and outer variable scalings. They use only one a single scaling value for the entire frequency range of each spectrum. The analyzed wall pressure normalization, which is inherently frequency dependent, produces a tight collapse within the uncertainty of the measurements for all rough surfaces studied except the larger hemispherical roughness which had individual elements that dominated the surrounding region of the wall pressure microphone. This indicates that the roughness generated noise is directly proportional to the wall pressure spectrum. The collapsed data displayed a slope of Ï ^2, the expected dipole efficiency factor. This is the clearest confirmation to date that the roughness noise source is of a dipole nature.
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