Effect of Sialylation of Histophilus somni Lipooligosaccharide on Virulence and Resistance to Host Defenses
Incorporation of N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA), or sialic acid, onto lipooligosaccharide (LOS) enhances the virulence of several bacterial species. In the present study, we assessed the effect of sialylation of Histophilus somni LOS on complement-mediated killing, binding of complement factor H (which converts C3b to inactive C3b (iC3b) and inhibit the alternative complement pathway) to the bacteria, complement activation by the LOS, and phagocytosis and killing of the bacteria by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Killing of H. somni by alternative complement pathway was measured by incubation of sialylated or non-sialylated H. somni with antibody-free precolostral calf serum (PCS) followed by viable plate count. A complement dose-dependent response to killing of non-sialylated H. somni by PCS was observed. However, sialylated H. somni were significantly (P = 0.001) more resistant to killing at any of the concentrations of PCS used.
Sialylated H. somni LOS activated (P = 0.025) and consumed (P = 0.001) less complement than non-sialylated LOS, as determined by reduction in hemolysis of opsonized sheep red blood cells or rabbit red blood cells, and by western blotting of C3 activation products. Sialylated H. somni bound more factor H than non-sialylated bacteria (determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) (P = 0.004), supporting the deficiencies observed in complement activation and consumption by sialylated LOS. Sialylation of H. somni inhibited both PMN phagocytosis of 3H-thymidine-labelled bacteria (P = 0.004) and intracellular killing of the bacteria (P = 0.0001), compared to non-sialylated bacteria. Therefore, sialylation of the LOS results in enhanced binding of complement factor H to the bacteria, resulting in diminished complement activation, resistance to complement-mediated lysis, and PMN phagocytosis and killing.
|dc.rights||I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.||en_US|
|dc.title||Effect of Sialylation of Histophilus somni Lipooligosaccharide on Virulence and Resistance to Host Defenses||en_US|
|dc.contributor.department||Veterinary Medical Sciences||en_US|
|dc.description.degree||Master of Science||en_US|
|thesis.degree.name||Master of Science||en_US|
|thesis.degree.grantor||Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University||en_US|
|thesis.degree.discipline||Veterinary Medical Sciences||en_US|
|dc.contributor.committeechair||Inzana, Thomas J.||en_US|
|dc.contributor.committeemember||Melville, Stephen B.||en_US|
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