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The Sensory and Analytical Analyses of Nonfat Milk Formulations: Stability to Light Oxidation and Pasteurization
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Sweet cream liquid buttermilk and skimmed milk ingredients were heat processed and/or exposed to fluorescent light to determine changes in potential flavor compounds. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/flame ionization detection was used to analyze the concentrations of the volatile compounds (2-butanone, 2-pentanone, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, hexanal, methyl sulfide) found in the two components. Pasteurized unoxidized skimmed milk had measurable levels of 2-butanone, acetaldehyde, and diacetyl. Pasteurization of skimmed milk increased concentration of 2-pentanone and methyl sulfide to measurable levels. However only 2-butanone and acetaldehyde were detectable in oxidized skimmed milk. All liquid buttermilk ingredient treatments had measurable concentrations of 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, and acetaldehyde. Pasteurization of unoxidized liquid buttermilk increased the concentration of diacetyl and hexanal to measurable levels whereas oxidized buttermilk, both pasteurized and unpasteurized, had measurable levels of hexanal and methyl sulfide. Nonfat (.3%) dairy beverages were formulated using the same components to determine if the volatiles in liquid buttermilk might enhance the flavor of nonfat milk. Triangle tests and hedonic tests were performed on the nonfat formulations to determine their overall difference and overall acceptance. There was no significant difference between formulations.
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