Effects of Spacing and Geometry of Distributed Roughness Elements on a Two-Dimensional Turbulent Boundary Layer
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The data show that the flow over a rough wall is characterized by high levels of turbulence near the roughness element peaks at the interface between low-speed, near-wall fluid and the higher speed fluid above. Behind an element, high-momentum fluid sweeps toward the wall, and there is a small region of ejection of low-momentum fluid. Cylindrical elements typically have larger magnitudes of turbulent stresses at their peaks compared to Gaussian elements. Trends in mean velocity profile parameters such as displacement height, roughness effect, and wake parameter are examined with respect to roughness element geometry and spacing.
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