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dc.contributor.authorPickworth, Carrie Lynnen_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-14T21:41:50Z
dc.date.available2014-03-14T21:41:50Z
dc.date.issued2005-06-20en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-08012005-112346en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/44031
dc.description.abstractThe beef cattle marketing structure imposes stress on calves due to weaning, transport, commingling, and adaptation to new diets, resulting in a weakened immune systems at the height of disease risk, frequently causing bovine respiratory disease. Backgrounding programs facilitate opportunities for calves to overcome stressors by building immunity, and adapting the rumen to high concentrate diets for improved feedlot performance. Four experiments were conducted to compare backgrounding strategies and effects of supplementation frequency performance and the effects of the ruminal environment. In Exp. 1, 48 weaned steers were used to investigate the effects of transportation and supplementation frequency, while in Exp. 2, 36 heifers were used to investigate only supplementation frequency. No differences in gains were observed due to transportation stress or supplementation frequency. Weaning stress resulted in elevated (P < 0.05) creatine kinase and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios during the first week. In Exp. 3, 48 calves were used to compare the effect of tall fescue type on performance and health. Calves on novel endophyte fescue had higher ADG (P = 0.07) than on endophyte-infected fescue. Experiment 4 investigated the changes in ruminal environment due to supplementation frequency. No differences were observed between supplementation frequencies for ruminal pH, ammonia, or VFA concentration, and DM, or CP digestibility. Therefore, the rumen maintained a hospitable environment to promote bacterial protein synthesis and fiber digestion with every 48 h supplementation. Backgrounding calves with high fiber co-product supplements or on novel endophyte fescue can enhance calf performance.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartTHESIS.pdfen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectcalvesen_US
dc.subjectstressen_US
dc.subjecttall fescueen_US
dc.subjectsupplementationen_US
dc.subjectweaningen_US
dc.subjectbackgroundingen_US
dc.titleThe effect of supplementation strategy, stress level, and tall fescue type on performance of fall-weaned beef calvesen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentAnimal and Poultry Sciencesen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineAnimal and Poultry Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairScaglia, Guillermoen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberFontenot, Joseph P.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberSwecker, William S. Jr.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberWahlberg, Mark L.en_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-08012005-112346/en_US
dc.date.sdate2005-08-01en_US
dc.date.rdate2005-08-17
dc.date.adate2005-08-17en_US


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