Quality attributes of breads made from wheat-millet composite flours fortified with vital wheat gluten
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The effects of incorporating pearl millet (Pennisetwn americanum (L.) Leeke) flour into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour along with vital wheat gluten were evaluated. Bread was made from wheat flour (control) and composite flours of 30%, 4O%, and 50% pearl millet Flour replacement with (5%) and without vital wheat gluten. The quality attributes of the loaves were assessed by dough rheology tests, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and both objective and sensory evaluation.
Farinograph results indicated that millet flour decreased absorption (water uptake) when compared to the control, decreased peak time for dough development and dough stability. Vital wheat gluten increased dough stability of the composite flours.
A stepwise decrease in loaf volume was observed with each increase in millet content of the composite flours. Addition of vital wheat gluten did not significantly increase the loaf volume of the breads. Bread made from higher percentages of pearl millet flour also had a higher moisture content, firmer texture and darker crumb color.
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC ) resul ts indicated that the control breads staled faster and that loaves of bread containing 50% millet flour with gluten exhibited the least amount of staling by day 7.
Results of sensory evaluation indicated that millet flour replacement resulted in bread with darker crumb and crust color, and a more bitter and intense after taste. Vital wheat gluten was judged by panelists to darken crust color, increase cell uniformity and improve chewiness. Consumer panelists preferred bread made from 30% millet without wheat gluten over the breads made from the other composite flours.
In conclusion, pearl millet flour can be used to replace part of wheat flour in the bread making process and the addition of vital wheat gluten is not necessary.
- Masters Theses