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dc.contributor.authorMullis, Summeren_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-03-14T21:45:52Z
dc.date.available2014-03-14T21:45:52Z
dc.date.issued2012-09-05en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-09142012-113149en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/44778
dc.description.abstractNontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and found in drinking water distribution systems and household plumbing. They are opportunistic pathogens of humans, causing lung disease. Their ability to adhere and form biofilm is attributed to a waxy, lipid-rich, cell envelope. This highly hydrophobic envelope also contributes to the characteristic antibiotic-, chlorine-, and disinfectant- resistance of NTM. NTM in household plumbing reside primarily in biofilms and the ability to form biofilm has been linked to virulence. Shedding of cells from biofilm and the subsequent aerosolization of microorganisms through showerheads presents a significant public health risk, particularly to those individuals with associated risk factors. Three species of NTM, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium abscessus, were examined for adherence and biofilm formation on surfaces common to household plumbing systems, including glass, copper, stainless steel, polyvinyl chloride, and galvanized steel. All experiments were conducted with sterile, Blacksburg tap water in a CDC Biofilm Reactor. Highest adherence was observed by M. avium on galvanized steel surfaces, reaching 15,100 CFU/cm2 surface at 6 hours incubation at room temperature. After 3 weeks incubation at room temperature, biofilm formation of M. avium was also highest on galvanized steel surfaces, reaching 14,000,000 CFU/cm2 surface. Lowest adherence was observed by M. abscessus on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces, reaching 40 CFU/cm2. Lowest biofilm formation was observed by M. intracellulare on glass surfaces, reaching 5,900 CFU/cm2. Surfaces, such as galvanized (zinc), on which high adherence and biofilm formation was observed, should be avoided in household plumbing systems of NTM patients and individuals at risk for developing NTM disease. Additionally, surfaces such as copper, harbor fewer NTM and may provide a safer alternative for household plumbing of NTM patients.en_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.relation.haspartMullis_SN_T_2012.pdfen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectNTMen_US
dc.subjectbiofilmsen_US
dc.subjecthousehold plumbingen_US
dc.titleAdherence and Biofilm Formation of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium abscessus in household plumbingen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentBiologyen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiologyen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairFalkinham, Joseph O. IIIen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberPruden-Bagchi, Amy Jillen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberYang, Zhaominen_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-09142012-113149/en_US
dc.date.sdate2012-09-14en_US
dc.date.rdate2012-10-23
dc.date.adate2012-10-23en_US


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