Gadolinium Endohedral Metallofullerenes for Future Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents
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Gadolinium endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) have shown the potential to become next generation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their significantly improved efficiency and safety, as well as multi-day body retention which allows for a longer surgery and observation compared to current contrast agents. In Chapter 1, I have reviewed the development of gadolinium EMF based MRI contrast agents. In Chapter 2, I have described my study of Gd3N@C80 and Gd3N@C84 metallofullerenols as next generation MRI contrast agents. The metallofullerenols are synthesized and characterized utilizing UV-vis, IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, relaxivity data were obtained for the two metallofullerenes, and the results showed that Gd3N@C84 metallofullerenol had enhanced relaxivity compared to Gd3N@C80 metallofullerenol. This result is consistent with the observation of magnetic resonance images of the samples at different concentrations. The enhanced relaxivity was attributed to the special ��[BULLET]egg shape��[BULLET] of the Gd3N@C84 cage. In Chapter 3, I have described the relaxivity study of Gd3N@C80 (without functionalization) in oleic acid, which could be used as an MRI contrast agent for more hydrophobic bioenvironments. The results show that Gd3N@C80 has a reasonable relaxation effect (relaxivity ~10 mM-1S-1 at 1.4 T) in oleic acid and could be a viable contrast agent even without functionalization. In Chapter 4, I have discussed the outlook of gadolinium EMF-based MRI contrast agents and suggested several directions for future work.
- Masters Theses