Dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y affect feed intake in brioler chicks
Nelson, Laura Ashley
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Understanding the central nervous systems role in appetite regulation is crucial to cure the obesity epidemic, which is more prevalent than any disease in the United States. Central appetite regulators, known as neuropeptides, are pivotal in understanding appetite regulation. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid peptide, plays a major role in regulating the hunger signals from the brain. In all vertebrates studied, it is a strong orexigenic neurotransmitter located throughout multiple nuclei of the hypothalamus. Peripheral hormones associated with hunger are able to activate NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which leads to a cascade of events that activate orexigenic neurons throughout the hypothalamus. Although extensive research has gone into understanding the role of NPY in appetite regulation, the effects of macronutrient composition of diets on NPY function have not been elucidated in non-mammalian species. This research investigates how food intake is affected by dietary macronutrient composition in broiler type chickens that are fed three varying macronutrient diets: high carbohydrate (22% CP, 3000kcal/kg) a broiler starter diet, high fat (60% ME from lard), high protein 30%CP). All diets were formulated to be isocaloric. When chicks are fed the high fat diet central NPY administration has a greater effect on feed intake compared to both the basal and high protein diet. Regardless of what diet the chick is fed from hatch, if they are switched to one of the other two diets post central administration of NPY the high fat diet stimulated feed intake for the longest duration. Although, NPY had the strongest orexigenic effect on chicks fed the high fat diet, in a choice diet situation broiler chicks chose the high protein diet, independent of central NPY administration.
- Masters Theses