A Low Order Aerodynamic Model of Embedded Total Temperature Probes
Heersema, Nicole Amanda
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Measurement of the total conditions downstream of fans is of primary importance to aeroengine development. Historically, these measurements have been acquired with the use of traditional total condition probes mounted to the guidevanes or engine cowling; however, such a setup can have significant impact on the flow. Difficulties in obtaining direct measurements with traditional total conditions probes have led to the development of an embedded shielded probe. In order to support this development, a model was desired to be developed that accurately modelled the recovery using a low-order analysis that could be implemented quickly. The creation and validation of such a model is the primary focus of the present research. Of secondary interest is to prove the hypothesis that aerodynamics will dominate the recovery of such a sensor. Based around the calculations for recovery used by Moffat, the model uses a linear vortex panel method to calculate the aerodynamics of the sensor. Higher order corrections were also suggested to improve the accuracy of the model. Several of these corrections, which take into account compressibility and variance of individual recovery factors, were included in the final model. Other corrections, such as improved paneling for the panel method and the inclusion of pitch angle have not been incorporated at this time but are part of an ongoing effort to improve and expand the capabilities of the model. Model validation was performed in three steps, starting with comparing the calculations for the recovery without aerodynamics to values present in literature for traditional Shielded probes. The aerodynamics and the panel method used to generate them were validated separately using the widely available program Xfoil. Validation of the combined model could only be accomplished via experimental testing. Several sensors, based on the predictions of the model, were 3D printed for use in experimental testing. Three key geometric parameters were identified and varied within the limits of interest to create the set of sensors tested. The purpose of this was two-fold. One: validate the model or identify key missing aerodynamic effects for inclusion. Two: prove the secondary hypothesis that aerodynamics will dominate the recovery. Testing was performed at a range of Mach numbers, yaw angles, and pitch angles commonly present in aeroengines. The data collected for model validation were simultaneously used to prove the hypothesis that aerodynamic effects dominated the recovery. This hypothesis was concluded to be true for the range of parameters tested. The model was determined to be valid for the range of parameters tested, although with the caveat that not all aerodynamic effects are fully accounted for and physical testing or CFD analysis is advised to verify results once design parameters have been narrowed down sufficiently. Further refinement of the experimental data and investigation of the aerodynamic effects are the subject of further study.
- Masters Theses