Computational Modeling of Total Temperature Probes
Schneider, Alex Joseph
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A study is presented to explore the suitability of CFD as a tool in the design and analysis of total temperature probes. Simulations were completed using 2D axisymmetric and 3D geometry of stagnation total temperature probes using ANSYS Fluent. The geometric effects explored include comparisons of shielded and unshielded probes, the effect of leading edge curvature on near-field flow, and the influence of freestream Mach number and pressure on probe performance. Data were compared to experimental results from the literature, with freestream conditions of M=0.3-0.9, p_t=0.2-1 atm, T_t=300-1111.1 K. It is shown that 2D axisymmetric geometry is ill-suited for analyses of unshielded probes with bare-wire thermocouples due to their dependence upon accurate geometric characterization of bare-wire thermocouples. It is also shown that shielded probes face additional challenges when modeled using 2D axisymmetric geometry, including vent area sizing inconsistencies. Analysis of shielded probes using both 2D axisymmetric and 3D geometry were able to produce aerodynamic recovery correction values similar to the experimental results from the literature. 2D axisymmetric geometry is shown to be sensitive to changes in freestream Mach number and pressure based upon the sizing of vent geometry, described in this report. Aerodynamic recovery correction values generated by 3D geometry do not show this sensitivity and very nearly match the results from the literature. A second study was completed of a cooled, shielded total temperature probe which was designed, manufactured, and tested at Virginia Tech to characterize conduction error. The probe was designed utilizing conventional total temperature design guidelines and modified with feedback from CFD analysis. This test case was used to validate the role of CFD in the design of total temperature probes and the fidelity of the solutions generated when compared to experimental results. A high level of agreement between CFD predictions and experimental results is shown, while simplified, low-order model results under predicted probe recovery.
- Masters Theses