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dc.contributor.authorLiu, Tong-Xianen_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-06-14T20:17:38Z
dc.date.available2016-06-14T20:17:38Z
dc.date.issued1987en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/71344
dc.description.abstractThe scurfy scales in the genus Chionaspis comprise a unique taxon among the armored scale insect genera in North America. The taxonomic reviews of the species belonging to the genus by Cooley (1899) and Ferris (1937, 1942) are far outdated. The present research is a comprehensive review of all the species in this genus in North America, with special emphasis on polymorphism associated with feeding sites which has been discovered in some species. Seventeen species have been redescribed and illustrated in detail, each with a discussion of their morphological affinities and relationships. Their host habits and zoogeography are summarized. The five species having typical bark and leaf forms, as well as intermediate forms, are discussed in more detail. A separate chapter deals with polymorphism, including a historical literature review of the subject. A hypothesis is given on the modes of transfer from the bark form to the leaf form and vice versa, that results in different morphs in first or second generations. Two keys were prepared: one for the genera related to Chionaspis and another for the determination of the species of this genus in North America. The three species that have been recently redescribed, C. americana and C. kosztarabi and C. nyssae are also discussed, and the most important morphological characters and the plates prepared by the original authors for each of these three species are given in order to better utilize the key to the species in North America. As a direct result of this research, two new species have been discovered: Chionaspis gilli Liu and Kosztarab, and C. hamoni Liu and Kosztarab. In addition new morphs were found for C. platani and C. wistariae. This thesis also includes many new distribution and host records for several species. The phylogenetic relationship of all the species in this study has been discussed, and as a result of the Ward's Minimum Variance Cluster Analysis (1985 version, SAS), a dendrogram has been provided based on 23 numerical characters.en
dc.format.extentxv, 309 leavesen_US
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
dc.relation.isformatofOCLC# 16837266
dc.rightsThis Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this Item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subject.lccLD5655.V855 1987.L587en_US
dc.subject.lcshPolymorphism (Zoology)en_US
dc.subject.lcshHomopteraen_US
dc.titleBiosystematics of the genus Chionaspis (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Diaspididae) of North America, with emphasis on polymorphismen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentEntomologyen_US
dc.description.degreeMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineEntomologyen_US
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten_US


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