Techniques involved in the use of chemicals in an attempt to establish wildlife clearings
Trumbo, Harold A.
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The main objective of this project was to determine the possibility and feasibility of creating wildlife clearings through the use of herbicides as compared to conventional methods of bulldozing and hand clearing. The selected study area adjoining a series of 3 compartments designated as Broad Run Research Area, designed to study various methods of habitat manipulation. Twelve areas were selected for treatment and numbered consecutively. Two were abandoned; No. 1 because of its small size and No. 3 because of the value in its natural condition. A square clearing design was arranged in each of the remaining 10 areas. Four herbicides were selected for testing, each proposed clearing was divided into 4 equal sections in order to apply the 4 herbicides to each clearing; one per quarter-section. The 4 herbicides tested were Monuron, Fenuron, 2,4,5-T, and Ammonium sulfamate. Nonuron and Fenuron, in granular form, were applied around the base of each stem at rates of 5 and 10 grams per stem. Stems 0-4.9 inches d.b.h. received 5 grams and stems 5 inches d.b.h. and larger received 10 grams. Ammonium sulfamate and 2,4,5-T were applied to frills cut at waist height. The ax cute in 2,4,5-T treatment were spaced at 4 inch intervals, and in the ammonium sulfamate treatment were continuous and overlapping. These two chemicals were applied by the use of 2 gallon garden sprayers; ammonium sulfamate at a rate of 7lbs. of crystals dissolved in 2 gallons of water and 2,4,5-T at a rate of 12 lbs. active ingredient per 100 gals. of No. 2 diesel fuel. Frills were filled to overflowing. The granular herbicides were applied in June and July 1958 and the frill treatments were made in August of that year. Two stem counts by species were made on each entire area. The first was made immediately after treatment and the second after one complete growing season. The percent of kill was computed for each herbicide based on the stem counts. Herbaceous sample plots 1/100 acre in size, were established in 4 areas representing 4 topographical features. Two stem counts were made on each of these 4 areas. An incidental field study using 1,2, and 4-grams of Fenuron per stem revealed that most woody species can be controlled with 1 gram of active ingredient per stem. Openings were satisfactorily established with Fenuron and Monuron; a lower rate of application could have been used. Techniques used in frilling would have to be altered to obtain satisfactory results when using 2,4,5-T and ammonium sulfamate; complete frills are necessary for 2,4,5-T treatments and the ax cuts placed closer to the root collar in ammonium sulfamate treatments. Sight observations revealed the areas were being used by deer, rabbit, grouse, turkey, and woodcock.
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