Role of the Sh3 and Cysteine-Rich Domain 3 (STAC3) Gene in Proliferation and Differentiation of Bovine Satellite Cells
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The STAC3 gene is a functionally undefined gene predicted to encode a protein containing two SH3 domains and one cysteine-rich domain. In this study, we determined the potential role of the STAC3 gene in proliferation and differentiation of bovine satellite cells. We isolated satellite cells from skeletal muscle of adult cattle and transfected them with STAC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or scrambled siRNA. Cell proliferation assays revealed that STAC3 knockdown had no effect on the proliferation rate of bovine satellite cells. We assessed the differentiation status of bovine satellite cells by quantifying the expression levels of myogenin and myosin heavy chain genes, and by quantifying fusion index. STAC3 knockdown stimulated mRNA and protein expression of myogenin, and myosin heavy chain 3 and 7, and increased fusion index of bovine satellite cells. These data together suggest that STAC3 inhibits differentiation of bovine satellite cells into myotubes. To determine the underlying mechanism, we identified and validated AP1?1 as a STAC3-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation. In C2C12 cells, STAC3 knockdown decreased the expression level of AP1?1 protein. In bovine satellite cells, STAC3 knockdown increased the membrane localization of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and glucose uptake. These data together suggest the following mechanism by which STAC3 inhibits differentiation of bovine satellite cells: STAC3 increases AP1?1 stability in cells; a high level of AP1?1 keeps GLUT4 from translocating to the plasma membrane; reduced membrane localization of GLUT4 impedes glucose uptake; and restricted glucose uptake inhibits differentiation of satellite cells into myotubes.
- Masters Theses