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dc.contributor.authorMcDonald, Valerie Alexandraen_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-10-20T08:00:14Z
dc.date.available2017-10-20T08:00:14Z
dc.date.issued2017-10-19en_US
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:12716en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/79723
dc.description.abstractAlkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) are common quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants in households, medical, and restaurant settings. They cause occupational skin and respiratory hazards in humans, and developmental and reproductive toxicity in mice. They also cause increased secretions of proinflammatory cytokines in cell lines and vaginal inflammation in porcine models; but have not been evaluated for developmental immunotoxicity. We assessed immunotoxicity in-vitro with J774A.1 murine macrophage cell line by analyzing cytokine production and phagocytosis; and evaluated developmental immunotoxicity in CD-1 mice by analyzing antibody production. Additionally, because of the associations between gut microbiome dysbiosis and immune disease, we monitored changes in the microbiome as a result of ADBAC+DDAC exposure. Production of cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 increased at low ADBAC+DDAC concentrations, and IL-10 decreased in the murine macrophages with ADBAC+DDAC exposure. The phagocytic function of macrophages was also severely decreased. ADBAC+DDAC altered the mouse microbiome by decreasing the relative abundance of Bacteroides and increases in Clostridia in F0 and F1 generations. IgG primary and secondary responses were altered in F1 male mice; and IgA and IgM production were decreased in secondary response in F2 male mice. Since ADBAC+DDAC show signs of immunotoxicity in mice, further studies are needed to reassess risk for human exposure as ADBAC+DDAC may be contributing to immune disease.en_US
dc.format.mediumETDen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsThis item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. Some uses of this item may be deemed fair and permitted by law even without permission from the rights holder(s), or the rights holder(s) may have licensed the work for use under certain conditions. For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights holder(s).en_US
dc.subjectImmunotoxicityen_US
dc.subjectDevelopmental Immunotoxicityen_US
dc.subjectADBACen_US
dc.subjectDDACen_US
dc.subjectMicrobiomeen_US
dc.titleEvaluating Immunotoxicity of Quaternary Ammonium Compoundsen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.contributor.departmentBiological Sciencesen_US
dc.description.degreeMSen_US
thesis.degree.nameMSen_US
thesis.degree.levelmastersen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiological Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairHrubec, Theresaen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairSible, Jill C.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberLuo, Xinen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberJones, Caroline N.en_US


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