The Effect of Fungicide Residues and Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen on Fermentation Kinetics and H2S Production during Cider Fermentation
Boudreau IV, Thomas Francis
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The Virginia cider industry has grown rapidly in the past decade, and demands research-based recommendations for cider fermentation. This study evaluated relationships between the unique chemistry of apples and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cider fermentations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and composition and residual fungicides influence H2S production by yeast during fermentation, but these factors have to date only been studied in wine grape fermentations. This study surveyed 12 Virginia-grown apple cultivars and found that the majority were severely deficient in YAN. The effects of three fungicides on cider fermentation were investigated; elemental sulfur, fludioxonil and fenbuconazole. Fenbuconazole adversely impacted fermentation kinetics. Sulfur and fludioxonil marginally impacted fermentation kinetics. Sulfur increased H2S production, but fludioxonil and fenbuconazole did not affect H2S production. There was no difference in fermentation kinetics and H2S between nitrogen sources arginine (approximating grape), asparagine (approximating apple) and ammonium (YAN supplement). Supplementation with methionine resulted in increased fermentation rate and decreased H2S production. The detrimental effects of fenbuconazole and beneficial effects of methionine were diminished with increasing total YAN. Contrary to previous findings, the most H2S was formed at 153 mg/L YAN which is above the generally recommended minimum to prevent H2S formation. These results indicate that apple juice chemistry may influence yeast metabolism during cider fermentation, in ways that have not been previously studied in grape fermentation. Our findings indicate the need for and contribute to the development of targeted fermentation management practices for cidermaking.
- Masters Theses