Functional Safety Assessment in Autonomous Vehicles
Shastry, Akshay Kumar
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Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are a class of safety-critical systems that are capable of decision-making and operate with little or no human intervention. For such complex systems designed to function in diverse operational domains such as rain, snow, freeway, urban roads, etc., system safety is paramount. Management of the system's safety throughout its life-cycle, from the conceptualization stage to the end of the lifecycle, is of primary importance. We describe a revision of functional safety standard ISO 26262 to support autonomous vehicles and the underlying electronic/electrical control architecture. There is a need to modify the Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASILs) defined in the ISO 26262 as "Controllability", a factor in determining an ASIL, is no longer applicable; the driver is no longer in a position to control the vehicle. The vehicle has taken over the responsibility of evaluating the environment and determines its next course of action to complete its current mission. These decisions have a tremendous impact on the overall safety of the system during a hazardous event and can be the difference between a successful journey and a traffic incident. To better enable the designers of such systems, we introduce a new method to assess the functional safety and derive safety goals, which are the top level safety requirement. We present a new metric-Risk Mitigation Factor to assess the decision making capability of the vehicle and to replace controllability in the ASIL definition. The case study presented highlights the advantages of using the introduced metric in defining safety goals for the autonomous vehicle.
- Masters Theses