Impact of Juice Clarification Processes on Chemical Composition of Hard Cider
MetadataShow full item record
Cider production volume has increased over 800% in the past 5 years in North America. This rapid growth of the cider industry coupled with traditional craft approach to cider making necessitates increased research on apple chemistry, processing, and fermentation strategies for cider production. A common problem in cider is the sulfur off-aromas production by yeast during fermentation. Fermentation of cloudy juice is often associated with sulfur off-aromas in white wine production; therefore, pre-fermentation juice clarification is an important and routine step in white winemaking practice. However, cider makers are often reluctant to clarify juice pre-fermentation due to beliefs that pre-fermentation juice clarification will reduce the concentration of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) and polyphenols; thus, negatively impacting cider quality. In this study, different clarification methods were applied on York apple juice, and both raw and clarified juices were fermented into cider. The impact of pre-fermentation juice clarification treatments on the juice and finished cider chemistry was assessed by comparing the primary juice and cider chemistry, YAN concentration and amino acid composition in juice, polyphenol concentration and composition in juice and cider. Different clarification treatments affected the YAN concentration and amino acid composition differently. Polyphenol concentration in juice was decreased and individual polyphenol composition was different after the clarification (p<0.05), but these changes did not persist into the finished cider. The effect of pre-fermentation juice clarification on sensory properties of cider warrants further investigation. Future research should also include the development of appropriate analysis for polyphenol measurement in apple juice and cider.
- Masters Theses