Identification of Tire Dynamics Based on Intelligent Tire
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Sensor-embedded tires, known as intelligent tires, have been widely studied because they are believed to provide reliable and crucial information on tire-road contact characteristics e.g., slip, forces and deformation of tires. Vehicle control systems such as ABS and VSP (Vehicle Stability Program) can be enhanced by leveraging this information since control algorithms can be updated based on directly measured parameters from intelligent tire rather than estimated parameters based on complex vehicle dynamics and on-board sensor measurements. Moreover, it is also expected that intelligent tires can be utilized for the purpose of the analysis of tire characteristics, taking into consideration that the measurements from the sensors inside the tire would contain considerable information on tire behavior in the real driving scenarios. In this study, estimation methods for the tire-road contact features by utilizing intelligent tires are investigated. Also, it was discussed how to identify key tire parameters based on the fusion technology of intelligent tire and tire modeling. To achieve goals, extensive literature reviews on the estimation methods using the intelligent tire system was conducted at first. Strain-based intelligent tires were introduced and tested in the laboratory for this research. Based on the literature review and test results, estimation methods for diverse tire-road contact characteristics such as slippages and contact forces have been proposed. These estimation methods can be grouped into two categories: statistical regressions and model based methods. For statistical regressions, synthetic regressors were proposed for the estimation of contact parameters such as contact lengths, rough contact shapes, test loads and slip angles. In the model-based method, the brush type tire model was incorporated into the estimation process to predict lateral forces. Estimated parameters using suggested methods agreed well with measured values in the laboratory environment. By utilizing sensor measurements from intelligent tires, the tire physical characteristics related to in-plane dynamics of the tire, such as stiffness of the belt and sidewall, contact pressure distribution and internal damping, were identified based on the combination of strain measurements and a flexible ring tire model. The radial deformation of the tread band was directly obtained from strain measurements based on the strain-deformation relationship. Tire parameters were identified by fitting the radial deformations from the flexible ring model to those derived from strain measurements. This approach removed the complex and repeated procedure to satisfy the contact3 constraints between the tread and the road surface in the traditional ring model. For tires with different specifications, identification using the suggested method was conducted and their results are compared with results from conventional methods and tests, which shows good agreements. This approach is available for the tire standing still or rolling at low speeds. For tires rolling at high speeds, advanced tire model was implemented and associated with strain measurements to estimate dynamic stiffness, internal damping effects as well as dynamic pressure distributions. Strains were measured for a specific tire under various test conditions to be used in suggested identification methods. After estimating key tire parameters step by step, dynamic pressure distributions was finally estimated and used to update the estimation algorithm for lateral forces. This updated estimation method predicted lateral forces more accurately than the conventional method. Overall, this research will serve as a stepping stone for developing a new generation of intelligent tire capable of monitoring physical tire characteristics as well as providing parameters for enhanced vehicle controls.
- Doctoral Dissertations