Study of residential demand for electricity as functions of load control schemes and dwelling characteristics

TR Number



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University


Residential demand is a large and important factor of the utility load during the system peak period. And the control of residential demand can make a significant change to the system load of the utility. This research is designed to study the residential end-use appliances under various direct load control schemes. These appliances are water heaters, air conditioners, and space heaters which are the major electrical demand of the residential load. The study will apply the LOADSIM, an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) load simulation program, to conduct load control strategies of these residential appliances. The LOADSIM program can be applied both for cycling and shedding control strategies during a specified control period. In this study, the cycling control is done on an air conditioner and space heater. The water heating control is performed under shedding strategy.

The research has studied the appliance use of four house types under the same weather and control conditions. A total of 100,000 houses have been used in the study. These houses have the same dwelling and appliance characteristics but their house insulations are different. Diversity in house insulations gives different results in terms of load reduction and temperature change due to the load control. For example, a better-insulated house demands less electricity for its appliance than a low-insulated house. This study also uses the EPRl-LOADSIM program to estimate the load reduction and temperature change of each house type under the load control.