Application of wind in large-scale electric power production

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Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

The application of wind power in various fields of energy requirements has been examined. Specific applications of the three broad classes of wind machines - Small, Intermediate and Large-scale, have been evaluated. Two methodologies were developed which could compute the amount of wind power required of existing Wind Turbine Generators (WTG) when placed in two sites in Virginia. The impacts of placing multiple WTG's in clusters to get higher power levels have been examined in details. A wake interference model has been included to calculate the amount of power reductions in downwind WTG rows.

The advantages evolving out of site dispersal were also investigated. In general terms, arrays of wind farms produce some firm capacity because of the diversity of wind at the dispersed sites. Mostly, arrays of multiple sites tend to fill up the low power output levels of an individual site during the day. Besides, the output from an array consisting of a total of N wind machines, will be more than the output from an identical number of machines in a single site. These aspects of site dispersal have been discussed.

The studies of Clusters and Arrays have been extended to utility interface. Two separate models - an Individual Site model and a Dispersed Site model have been considered for integration. Capacity credit earned for each case was investigated in details using a Reliability model. Wind power was also looked at from the competition against conventional expansion plants point of view. The economics of wind power in terms of capacity and operational cost savings were also examined.

The problems arising out of a possible integration of wind machines have been pointed out and some solutions have been suggested. Computational results are presented in details from the major studies and recommendations for further work have been discussed.