Effects of visual performance presentations on student perceptions of the elements of music
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of visual performance presentations on student perceptions of the elements of music. Eighth and 12th grade student groups (n = 155) were randomly assigned from intact music classes into two presentation groups (audio and video). A Posttest Control Group Design was utilized to determine the treatment effects of four videotaped performances on student responses to Olson's Part One: Musical Detail from the Measurement of Musical Awareness (©1987). Two excerpts in Jazz style (big band) and two in Classical style (symphony orchestra) were presented in random order to each of the treatment groups. The experimental group was presented a videotaped music performance of each excerpt while the control group was presented only the audiotaped performances of the same excerpts. The students responded to twenty-eight test statement items regarding melody, form, texture, meter, rhythm, harmony, tone color, tempo, and dynamics in the four different music performances.