Trapping of Crucifer-Feeding Flea Beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) With Pheromones and Plant Kairomones

Abstract

Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of the genus Phyllotreta are major pests of cole crops, canola, and related crops in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Adults may damage seedlings or larger crop plants, impairing crop growth, rendering crops unmarketable, or killing seedlings outright. The two major North American crucifer pest species, Phyllotreta striolata (F.) and Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), have male-produced pheromones attractive to both female and male adults. We tested the racemic synthetic pheromones, himachaladiene and hydroxyhimachalanone, as well as the host-plant-produced allyl isothiocyanate, alone and in combination, with experimental trapping in Maryland, Virginia, and North Dakota, using clear and yellow sticky traps and the ground-based 'rocket' trap (modified from boll weevil trap). Phyllotreta striolata was consistently attracted to the hydroxyketone, and captures were often enhanced by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), but its response to pheromones, AITC, and trap color were variable from state to state. Phyllotreta cruciferae was strongly attracted to AITC, but its response to pheromone components varied by state, and this species was found rarely at the Maryland site. Phyllotreta bipustulata (F.) was attracted to the diene component, a new finding for this species. Several other genera of flea beetles were captured, some showing response to the semiochemicals and/or color. Results will be helpful in monitoring and possibly population suppression; however, further research is necessary to develop more efficient syntheses, optimal lure loadings, combinations, and controlled release methods.

Description
Keywords
monitoring, integrated pest management, chemical ecology, AGGREGATION PHEROMONE, STRIOLATA COLEOPTERA, STICKY TRAPS, RESPONSES, LEPIDOPTERA, SESQUITERPENES, VOLATILES, APHTHONA
Citation