Synthesis and Characterization of pure-phase Zr-MOFs Based on meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine

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Virginia Tech

Chapter 1: The unique chemical and biological properties of porphyrins have led to increased interest in the development of porphyrin-based materials. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) can act as a scaffold for the immobilization of porphyrins in desired arrangements. The crystalline nature of MOFs allows for control over spatial arrangement of porphyrins and the local environment of the porphyrin molecules. This opens up the possibility of conducting systematic studies aimed at exploring structure-property relationships. Several strategies for the design and synthesis of porphyrin-based frameworks have been developed over the last two decades, such as, the pillared-layer strategy, construction of nanoscopic metal-organic polyhedrals (MOPs), post-synthetic modification, etc. These strategies provide an opportunity to engineer porphyrin-based MOFs that can target a specific application or serve as multi-functional assemblies. Porphyrin-based MOFs provide a tunable platform to perform a wide variety of functions ranging from gas adsorption, catalysis and light harvesting. The versatile nature of these frameworks can be exploited by incorporating them in multi-functional assemblies that mimic biological and enzymatic systems. Nano-thin film fabrication of porphyrin-based MOFs broadens their application range, making it possible to use them in the construction of photovoltaic and electronic devices.

Chapter 2: The reaction of zirconium salts with meso-tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin (TCPP) in the presence of different modulators results in the formation of a diverse set of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), each displaying distinct crystalline topologies. However, synthesis of phase-pure crystalline frameworks is challenging due to the concurrent formation of polymorphs. The acidity and concentration of modulator greatly influence the outcome of the MOF synthesis. By systematically varying these two parameters, selective framework formation can be achieved. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of modulator on the synthesis of zirconium-based TCPP MOFs. With the help of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), modulator candidates and the optimal synthetic conditions yielding phase-pure PCN-222, PCN-223 and MOF-525 were identified. 1H NMR analysis, TGA and N2 gas adsorption measurements were performed on select MOFs to gain insight into the relationship between their defectivity and modulator properties.

Chapter 3: Singlet-singlet energy transfer in PCN-223(free-base), a highly stable Zr-MOF based on meso-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin was investigated, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, steady-state emission spectroscopy, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) spectroscopy and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The effects of the surrounding media and temperature on the excited-state properties of PCN-223(fb) were explored to understand the mechanistic aspects of energy transfer. Stern-Volmer photoluminescence quenching of PCN-223(fb) suspensions was performed to extract quenching rate constants and gain insight into the efficiency of energy transfer.

Chapter 4: The fourth chapter of this thesis is adapted from chapter 14 of the book "Elaboration and Applications of Metal-Organic Frameworks" authored by Jie Zhu, Shaunak Shaikh, Nicholas J Mayhall and Amanda J Morris. This chapter summarizes the fundamental principles of energy transfer in MOFs and provides an overview of energy transfer in lanthanide-Based luminescent MOFs, Ru/Os-Based MOFs, porphyrin- and metalloporphyrin-based MOF materials, and nonporphyrinic, organic chromophore-based MOFs.

Metal-organic frameworks, modulators, polymorphism, defects, porphyrins, energy transfer